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GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #50 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 08, 2021, 11:40:02 AM »
WELSPUN Hot Pulled Induction Bends


WCL currently offers one stop solution in line pipes with a capacity to manufacture Longitudinal (LSAW), Spiral (HSAW) and HFERW / HFI (ERW) pipes. The company additionally offers coating, bending and double jointing facilities, thereby giving a 360-degree pipe solution to its customers.


Tecnological Excellence
        - In-house Mother Pipe manufacturin
        - Controleed alloy design from steel making stage for mother pipes
        - 500 kW and 1500 kW Induction Heating capacity
        - Minimum wall thining and oveality
        - Precise bending redius and angle
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/hot-pulled-induction-bends/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #51 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 09, 2021, 10:30:10 AM »
Welpsun Pipeline with Engineering Excellence


Welspun Corp Limited (WCL) is one of world’s-leading welded line pipe manufacturer, and the flagship company of the Welspun Group.  Welpsun Pipeline , we believe in acquiring talent, developing skills, engaging individuals in multiple projects, and providing them with world-class experience and exposure, while keeping our core values at the crux of these activities.

We’re a team of nearly 4,000+ people across the world, focused on building a culture of ‘Engineering Excellence’in our Welpsun Pipeline

Over the last two decades, our innovative approach and, technical capabilities have helped us deliver some of the path-breaking Welpsun Pipeline projects across the world.

With over $1.2 billion of annual revenue, Welspun Corp is a true Indian multinational, operating across multiple geographies. We share a close relationship with our customers, and are the providers of choice for some of the largest players in the global oil and gas industry.

Welpsun Pipeline Capacitied and Capabilities
ERW


Technical Excellence
         - 90 m long Looper Tunnel/ Accumulator with 180 meters strip length capacity
         - 600 kW solid state High Frequency Welder with on-line monitoring and data recording
         - 1500 kW Seam Normalizing Unit comprising 3×500 kW Induction Units
         - On-line Internal Bead Scarfing with CCTV monitoring
         - State-of-the-art ROTO UT System (Immersion Testing) for Weld, HAZ and Pipe Body (100% coverage)

LONGITUDINAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDED (LSAW)
Dahej: 3,50,000 MTPA
Anjar: 3,50,000 MTPA


Technnological Excellence
         - High thickness rolling capabilities
         - Auto Pipe Dimension Measurement System (APDMS)
         - Online Plate UT System
         - State-of the-art, high capacity, PLC governed Mechanical Expander
         - High capacity (650 bar) Hydro Testing Machine
         - State-of-the-art Auto UT from GE Inspection Technology (2 lines)

HELICALLY SUBMERGED ARC WELDED (H-SAW)
Anjar: 3,80,000 MTPA
Dahej: 50,000 MTPA
Mandya: 1,50,000 MTPA
Bhopal: 1,75,000 MTPA


Award
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/welpsun-pipeline-with-engineering-excellence

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #52 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 11, 2021, 09:52:12 AM »
Flowserve Serck Audco Plug Valve for oil&gas isolation

For the biggest challenges of fluid motion control, customers worldwide rely on the engineering, project management and service expertise of . We Flowserve Plug Valve deliver more than the most complete portfolio of reliable valves, pumps and seals available.

Our global team of more than 18,000 employees in 55 countries can put together the total solution-from project planning to lifecycle maintenance programs to some of the most proven technology on the planet by Flowserve Plug Valve. All so you can get more from your capital investment. Exceed your operational goals. And always come through, when failure is not an option.

Serck Audco was founded in 1869. Their long-established reputation is maintained by modern valve design and manufacturing techniques. Supplied and serviced around the world, Serck Audco products are used in industries as diverse as oil and gas, mining, food and chemical processing.

Why Select a Flowserve Plug Valve?
- PRESSURE BALANCED PLUG VALVES

Large seating area enhances the Super-H resistance to erosion.

The wide area maximizes the effectiveness of sealant, so that any unlikely seat damage can solve injecting Serck Audco Sealant, restoring the valve zero leakage bubble tight shut-off capabilities without the need of seats replacement.

Moreover, Sealant can inject with the valve in any position and also under pressure, making the valve in-line maintainable.

- BALL VALVES
BALL VALVES

The thin seating area can be damaged by the erosion action of the media and the particles contained in it.

Difference between Sealant for Plug Valve and Sealant for Ball Valve

Sealants for Ball Valves valve generally designs to stop leakages on damaged ball valves. To achieve this and since Ball Valves have thin seating areas, sealants are thicker and include a higher percentage of solid fillers in an effort to plug seat damages and not be washed away by pressure.

Difference between Sealant for Plug Valve and Sealant for Ball Valve 1

Futhermore, Sealants for Flowserve Plug Valve designs to provide general lubrication and bubble tight sealing performance. Since plug valves have relatively wide seating areas, sealants can be thinner and still provide zero leakage over several operations.

Using a Ball Valve sealant on a Plug Valve is not recommended. Moreover,The thicker nature (and high percentage of solid fillers) of a Ball Valve sealant will increase operating torques due to the wide contact area between plug and body and even lead to valve jamming if the sealant dries up.

Difference between Sealant for Plug Valve and Sealant for Ball Valve 2

Flowserve Plug Valve Products
1)  Lubricated Plug Valves – SUPER H
BRAND: Serck Audco

The Super-H Lubricated Plug Valve is a rugged, pressure balanced plug valve designed for demanding oil and gas isolation applications where bubble tight shut-off and reliable operation are critically important.

Super-H Design
Basic design advantages of Flowserve Plug Valve such as metal-to-metal seats and a wide seating area, along with competitive pricing, have made plug valves the product of choice when the valve operates in a difficult or dirty service and/or needs to open against full differential pressure. The robust metal-to-metal seats ensure long valve life on any service, even in presence of solid particles in the line media.

Features and Benefits
Benefits

        - Certainty of zero leakage sealing down the line, even with damaged metal seats.
        - Certainty of operation with low and consistent torque which is stable over long periods of time.
        - Minimal maintenance regime.
        - Full in-line maintainability even under full pressure and without any need of shut down.
        - Assured sealing to atmosphere.

How It Is Achieved
        - Precise seat mating procedures.
        - Effective sealant injection system combined with wide seating areas.
        - Pressure balanced plug as standard, with option of Protected Pressure balance®
        - Super LoMu Anti Friction Treatment on plug and stem.
        - Precise factory set plug loading
        - Provision for sealant injection for the seats
        - Provision for stem packing re-injection
        - Independent stem sealing design that can meet stringent fugitive emissions requirements.
        - All pressure seals in fire safe metal or graphite.

Design Range
       - Super-H valves are available in Regular, Short or Venturi, Pattern, in accordance with API 6D, API 599 and BS 5353. The different patterns vary in regard to face-to-face dimension and port area for a given size of valve.
        - Size Range:
        - DN 15 to 1050
        - NPS ½ to 42
        - Pressure Class Range:
        - PN 20 to 420
        - Class 150 to 2500
        - API 2000 to 10000

Standard
        - API 6D – Specification for pipeline valves
        - API 6A – Specification for wellhead equipment
        - ISO 14313 – Petroleum and natural gas industries-Pipeline valves
        - ISO 10423 – Petroleum and natural gas industries-Wellhead equipment
        - API 599 – Metal plug valves – flanged, threaded and welding ends
        - BS 5353 – Specification for steel plug valves
        - ANSI B16.10 & BS 2080. – Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions

Sample Applications
        - Bypass Equalizing Valve  : To resist the erosion caused by full differential pressure openings on a transmission line, it will seal to protect the main line valve
Bypass Equalizing Valves

        - High Pressure Gas Isolation  :  Bubble tight shut-off on one of the more searching medias
High Pressure Gas Isolation

        - Underground Storage : Protected metal seating to resist impurities and give zero leakage even on the highest pressures
Underground Storage

        - Slurry Isolation Extremely abrasive services, a robust valve with no cavities

 Reference
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/flowserve-serck-audco-plug-valve-for-oilgas-isolation/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #53 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 11, 2021, 10:27:54 AM »
TEG1120 100watt (Class1, Div2 or Class1, Div 1)


The Model 1120 Thermoelectric Generator is Class 1, Div 2 or Class 1, Div 1 hazardous area rated. With no moving parts it is a reliable, low maintenance source of DC electrical power for any application where regular utilities are unavailable or unreliable.

KEY DESIGN FEATURES OF TEG1120 :
         - Automatic Spark Ignition (SI)
         - Automatic Fuel Shut-Off (SO)
         - Fuel Filter
         - Low Voltage Alarm Contacts (VSR)
         - Volt & Amp Meter
         - Reverse Current Protection
         - Flame Arrestor
         - CSA Certification (Class 1, Div 2 Group D, Temp T3)

OPTIONAL FEATURES OF TEG1120 :
         - FM Certification (Class 1, Div 1, Temp T3)
         - 316 SS Regulator & Fuel Valve
         - Cathodic Protection Interface Panel
         - Pole Mount or Bench Stand
         - Intake Air Filter

ANOTHER FEATURES
Power Specifications
Power Rating at 20ºC : 110 Watts @ 6.7 Volts, 100 Watts @ 12 Volts,100 Watts @ 24 Volts, 100 Watts @ 48 Volts
Electrical
Output Adjustment Range: 6.7 V up to 11 Volts,12 V 12–18 Volts,24 V 24–30 Volts,48 V 48–60 Volts
Fuel Requirements
Natural Gas: 8.8m3/day (311 Sft3/day), 1000 BTU/Sft3 (37.7 MJ/Sm3) ,gas max 115 mg/Sm3(~170 ppmw) ,H2S max 120 mg/Sm3, H2O max 1% free O2
Environmental
Ambient Operating Temperature: Max. +45ºC (115ºF) , Min. -20ºC (-4ºF)
Construction
Materials:  Cabinet : 316 Stainless Steel (SS) / Cooling Type: Natural Convection / Fuel System: Aluminum & Stainless Steel
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/teg1120-100watt/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #54 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 13, 2021, 04:14:25 AM »
TEG1500 500watt (Class1,Div2)


The Model 1500 Thermoelectric Generator (TEG1500) is Class 1, Div 2 hazardous area rated.

The Model 1500 Thermoelectric Generator is Class 1, Div 2 hazardous area rated. With no moving parts, it is a reliable, low maintenance source of DC electrical power for any application where regular utilities are unavailable or unreliable.

KEY DESIGN FEATURES OF TEG1500
       - Automatic Spark Ignition (SI)
       - Automatic Fuel Shut-Off (SO)
       - Fuel Filter
       - Low Voltage Alarm Contacts (VSR)
       - CSA Certification
       - Reverse Current Protection
       - Class 1, Div 2, Group D, Temp T3
       - Volt & Amp Meter
       - Flame Arrestor

OTHER FEATURES OF TEG1500

Power Specifications
Power Rating at 20ºC : 500 Watts @ 24 Volts

Electrical
Output Adjustment Range : 24 V 24–30 Volts

Fuel Requirements
Natural Gas: 48.0m3/day (1695 Sft3/day) ,1000 BTU/Sft3(37.7 MJ/Sm3) , gas max 115 mg/Sm3(~170 ppmw) ,
H2S max 120 mg/Sm3 , H2O max 1% free O2

Environmental
Ambient Operating Temperature: Max. +45ºC (115ºF) , Min. -40ºC (-40ºF)

Construction
Materials:  Cabinet : 316 Stainless Steel (SS) , Cooling Type : Natural Convection , Fuel System : Aluminum & Stainless Steel
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/teg1500-500watt/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #55 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 13, 2021, 12:10:56 PM »
TEG 8550 500watt


The Model 8550 Thermoelectric Generator ( TEG 8550 ) contains no moving parts.

The Model 8550 Thermoelectric Generator contains no moving parts. It is a reliable, low-maintenance source of DC electrical power for any application where regular utilities are unavailable or unreliable.

KEY DESIGN FEATURES OF TEG 8550
        - Automatic Spark Ignition (SI)
        - Automatic Fuel Shut-Off (SO)
        - Fuel Filter
        - Low Voltage Alarm Contacts (VSR)
        - Reverse Current Protection

OPTIONAL FEATURES OF TEG 8550
        - Corrosive Environmental Fuel System
        - Bench Stand
        - Ethylene Fueled
        - Operation Over 4000m Elevation
        - Cathodic Protection Interface

OTHER FEATURES
Power Specifications

Power Rating at 20ºC : 480 Watts @ 12 Volts , 550 Watts @ 24 Volts, 480 Watts @ 48 Volts

Electrical
Output Adjustment Range : 12 V 11.4–12.6 Volts , 24 V 24–30 Volts, 48 V 47–57 Volts

Fuel Requirements
Natural Gas: 48.0m3/day (1695 Sft3/day) ,1000 BTU/Sft3 (37.7 MJ/Sm3), gas max 115 mg/Sm3 (~170 ppmw) , H2S max 120 mg/Sm3
H2O max 1% free O2

Environmental
Ambient Operating Temperature: Max. +45ºC (115ºF) , Min. -40ºC (-40ºF)

Construction
Materials:  Cabinet: 304 Stainless Steel (SS) , Cooling Type: Natural Convection , Fuel System: Brass, Aluminum & Stainless Steel
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/teg-8550-500watt/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #56 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 17, 2021, 02:19:54 PM »
Honey Well Product Sensing & IOT

Honey Well Product
Sensing & IOT

Honeywell Store is the leading brand products. There are many types of products such as Honeywell Switches & Controls ,Honeywell Sensors etc.


https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/other-part-supply/honeywell-other-part-supply/sensing-iot/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #57 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 17, 2021, 02:47:24 PM »
Global Solar Hybrid Power Systems


Thermoelectric (TEG) and M-Series Generators are the perfect companion to solar (PV) power systems. Global Solar Hybrid systems face challenges including available daily sunlight, extreme temperatures, seasonal shading and debris covered solar panels (snow, dirt/dust, sand, etc.). When you combine the power of solar with a TEG or M-Series generator the result is the most reliable off-grid power system available on the market today.

We make Global Solar Hybrid Power Systems for the world.
There are times when battery-based solar systems fail to provide reliable power to critical systems, including :

Operational challenges for solar only systems
- Daily available sunlight: no sun = no power.
- Extreme cold: during winter months, solar systems fail due to extreme temperatures, snow covered solar panels, and reduced daily sunlight.
These conditions prevent batteries from maintaining a consistent or minimal charge, often resulting in costly replacement due to failure.
- Extreme heat: contrary to popular belief, batteries do not work well in extreme heat. In fact, extreme heat damages and degrades batteryperformance making frequent replacement the only option. Cost of batteries, along with cost of site visits, becomes a burden.
- The solution: by incorporating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to your site, you can eliminate system downtime while saving on operational
costs (site visits, maintenance, battery replacement) in both the short- and long-term.


Global Solar Hybrid Advantage
         - Most reliable remote power solution available on the market today
         - Lowest operating expense on the market
         - Commercially available fuel vs. imported competitor fuels
         - Low emissions
         - Optimizes and extends battery life
         - Minimal annual maintenance

Features & Benefits of Global Solar Hybrid Power Systems :
         - 50–500 watt systems available.
         - 12V, 24V or 48V output.
         - Lowest operational cost on the market.
         - Optimizes & extends battery life.
         - Minimizes fuel consumption.
         - Small environmental footprint.
         - Remote monitoring.

How it works
Solar Hybrid systems combine photovoltaic (PV) panels and Thermoelectric (TEG) or M-Series Generators to decrease the size and cost of the PV and battery requirements, while keeping system reliability at the highest possible level.

By incorporating a TEG or M-Series generator to your site, you can eliminate system downtime while saving on operational costs (site visits, maintenance, battery replacement) in both the short- and long-term.

The Global Power Technologies (GPT) Solar Hybrid Controller monitors the battery bank’s state of charge and starts the generator when the battery becomes too low.  When the PV array is delivering enough energy for the battery to exceed the minimum state of charge to the load, the generator can turn itself off until required again.

The chart below illustrates performance of a Solar-only system vs. TEG Hybrid system during a typical solar year.


https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/global-solar-hybrid-power-systems/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #58 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 18, 2021, 10:57:58 AM »
Processing and Separation technologies have several products such as Gas processing and treatment, Integrated surface production systems, Oil treatment technology , Solid management  and Water treatment .
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/

Gas Processing & Treatment
Gas Processing & Treatment  contains inherent impurities which not only accelerate the pipe corrosion and transmission regulators but also reduce the heating gas as well. These contaminants must be removed before the gas flows to the processing plant . This includes our efficient services such as High-Efficiency phase seperation internal ,Cyclotech B Series deoiling hydrocyclone,PUREMEG Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation and regeneration system ,Advanced Apura Gas Separation Membrane,Amine gas treating system with field-proven, Glycol Dehydration Systems for water removal

Our sophisticated experts offer a wide range of services,including conceptual design project ,implementation, pre-commissioning, commissioning, operation, remote monitoring and technical support.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/gas-processing-treatment/

Integrated Surface
Integrated Surface Production Systemis a new innovative system built on this technology is a proprietary backwashing system used in oily wastewater and production and processing water. A regenerative agent coated with a patented polymer technology. The new generation media provides economically sustainable treatment for oil and suspended solids removal. There are several systems: Advanced Regenerative Water Treatment Media, Advanced Media Polisher/ Oil-in-water polishing filters, CYNARA Acid Gas Removal Membrane Systems,MYCELX Polisher Oil. -In-Water Polishing Filter, Early Production Systems
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/integrated-surface-production-system/


Oil Treatment Technologies
Our crude oil treatment technologies include multiphase separation systems, dehydration and desalting electrostatic treaters, and distillate treaters. We use these technologies — perfected over many decades —to provide solutions ranging from single-stage product applications to complete oil treatments to ensure your oil is cost-effectively delivered to specification.

We can use our industry-leading technologies to optimize a processing facility tailored to your requirements.

Our experts can also help you identify upgrade opportunities for your existing facilities that will boost production and provide an immediate return on investment.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/oil-treatment/


Solid management throughout your gas and liquid process
Solid management throughout your gas and liquid process Knowing both the nature of solids in the liquid used in production and when they will occur is a key advantage in designing separation and handling systems. By using trait analysis and test insights well. We can help you build custom solids solutions from an array of efficient separation, transport and treatment technologies. This reduces production downtime. which technology The solids handling industry includes MOZLEY Wellhead Desander- Solids removal system, MOZLEY Wellhead Desander- Solids removal system, MOZLEY Desanding Hydrocyclone, CYCLOTECH SCARPA Cyclonic separation technologies, CYCLOTECH WDC Series Wellhead desanding cyclone technologies, CYCLOTECH. MC Series desanding hydrocyclone technologies
 
solid erosion equipment Foul and plug system components and is the driving force of overall production efficiency Cleverly designing and implementing a system that is suitable for the purpose can reduce both costs and expenses. while meeting your specific needs.
 
Our reliable, maintenance-free technology portfolio can help you mitigate the negative effects of solids in any process. of your production process while supporting solid filling and operating conditions such as flow rate, pressure and temperature.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/solids-management/



Water Treatment
Processing and separation technologies such as high potential water treatment excellent technologies such as Sulfate Removal System – Effective treatment of seawater for injection , Effective SEA-SCREEN Coarse Strainer, Polymem UF Seawater Ultrafiltration System ,UNICEL Vertical IGF – Induced-Gas Flotation Unit,Reverse Osmosis Systems for removing dissolved salts. from seawater, CYCLOTECH Cyclonic Separation Technologies,EPCON Dual Compact Flotation Unit (CFU), which is suitable for oil and gas industry.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/water-treatment/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #59 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 19, 2021, 12:28:06 PM »
Tristar
Tristar Best in Class Bolts and Nuts started business in the late 70s, Tri-Star Industries Group has made a great progress and become a well-known manufacturer of fluoropolymer coated bolts and nuts. Also, Tristar is a cable support system Hydraulic and torque bolt tensioning products and services for the global oil, gas, power, petrochemical, marine and infrastructure industries.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/tristar/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #60 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 19, 2021, 01:59:51 PM »
Global Power Technologies (GPT)

Global

In 1975, the founders of Global Power Technologies (GPT), an entrepreneurial group in Alberta, Canada, began manufacturing and developing thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for commercial use throughout the country. The examples of products are TEG1120 100watt (Class1, Div2 or Class1, Div 1) , TEG1500 500watt (Class1,Div2) , TEG 8550 500watt.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/global/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #61 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 21, 2021, 12:16:18 AM »
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) equipments

LNG equipments
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  is a natural gas that has been converted from gas to liquid. By reducing the temperature to about -160 degrees Celsius, there are many types of equipment involved such as LNG transportation , Cryogenic Liquid Semi-trailer ,LNG Station LNG storage tank for Permanent LNG station,LNG as truck fuel, LNG Vehicle gas Supply System with highest standard and application.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/lng/


Vehicle Range
The widespread use of gasoline and diesel is largely explained by energy density and ease of onboard storage. The energy per unit volume is a key determinate to the distance a vehicle can travel before needing to be refueled. LNG has lower energy density per unit volume than diesel and therefore has a lower range than diesel, but higher range than CNG. A comparison of fuel volume and range for diesel, LNG and CNG is given in Figure 18.


The density of LNG, and therefore the amount of energy in the equivalent volume of fuel, is related to the temperature and pressure in the tank. LNG at lower temperature and pressure will provide an increased range for the vehicle and a longer hold time in the fuel tank34 . For example, a truck fueled with LNG at 50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) has range up to 740 miles and a hold time up to 10 days, compared to a super warm tank of LNG at 225 psig, which has a range up to 620 miles and one day hold time, Figure 19.



LNG Quality
Variations in LNG quality could cause inefficiencies and equipment performance issues for the end user. Although a number of guidelines exist for fuel composition for natural gas engines, there are few standards in existence. The principal constituent of natural gas is methane (CH4) with smaller quantities of other components including heavier HC, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and inerts (e.g. CO2 and nitrogen (N)). The natural gas is treated to remove impurities and gas liquids, then liquefied through a refrigeration process to approximately -260˚F (-162˚C) to yield LNG. Typically LNG consists of 83% to 97% CH4 with small amounts of ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butanes (C4H10) and trace amounts of nitrogen gas (N2). The design of the liquefaction plant, usually based on the specification required by the end user, will determine the composition and quality of LNG produced. LNG quality therefore varies depending on the source of the LNG (i.e. which liquefaction plant it is produced by), as well as transportation time, during which the composition can change slightly due to the evaporation or boil off of lighter components. LNG quality is typically described using a measure of energy content (e.g. gross calorific value), the combustion characteristics of the LNG (e.g. Wobbe Number, Soot Index, or Incomplete Combustion Factor) and the impurities contained in the LNG (e.g. % sulphur, CO2, N2). Gross heating value is a key measure of LNG quality since LNG is sold on an energy basis. The range of gross heating value (and other key quality parameters) for a variety of different sources of LNG is given in Figure 20, showing a range of 39.92 MJ/m3 to 46.24MJ/m3 . Further information is given in Appendix 9.h, LNG Quality and Methane Number


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #62 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 22, 2021, 02:23:09 PM »
LNG as truck fuel
Our LNG as truck fuel is one of the leading supplies that you shouldn’t have missed. Gms Interneer help you offer LNG Special Vehicles – LNG Forklift Truck, LNG Special Vehicles – LNG mining dump truck, LNG Heavy Vehicle Tractor – Triple Cylinder Type, LNG Heavy Vehicle Tractor – Double Cylinder Type to deliver across the world.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/lng/lng-as-truck-fuel/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #63 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 23, 2021, 02:47:05 AM »
Industrial gas LNG

INDUSTRIAL GAS by CIMC ENRIC Holdings Ltd to become the world’s leading major equipment manufacturer and service providers of engineering and system solutions for the energy, chemical and beverage industries such as Cryogenic Thermal-insulating Cylinder
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/lng/industrial-gas-lng/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #64 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 23, 2021, 02:48:31 PM »
Water Treatment


Processing and separation technologies such as high potential water treatment excellent technologies such as Sulfate Removal System – Effective treatment of seawater for injection , Effective SEA-SCREEN Coarse Strainer, Polymem UF Seawater Ultrafiltration System ,UNICEL Vertical IGF – Induced-Gas Flotation Unit,Reverse Osmosis Systems for removing dissolved salts. from seawater, CYCLOTECH Cyclonic Separation Technologies,EPCON Dual Compact Flotation Unit (CFU), which is suitable for oil and gas industry.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/processing-and-seperation/water-treatment/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #65 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 26, 2021, 04:14:44 AM »
LNG Station


LNG Station
      - LNG pressure regulator unit
      - LNG Ambient Air Vaporizer (AAV)
      - LNG storage tank for Permanent LNG station
      - Vertical Cryogenic Tank
      - Horizontal Cryogenic Tank
      - LNG Regasification Station
      - LNG Regasification Station
      - Microbulk LNG Tank
      - Cryogenic Liquid Storage Tank Microbulk

https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/lng/lng-station/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #66 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 28, 2021, 12:17:16 PM »
Magnetrol
Magnetrol , we believe in the future of advanced process and technologies. With our sophisticated experts, We design our products with the highest standards of excellence such as External cage type level switches,Magnetrol External Chamber,External Cage Liquid Level Switch for Power Industry,Eclipse Model 706 Wave Radar Level Transmitter,Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches,Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid. Level Displacer Transmitter .
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/other-part-supply/magnetrol-other-part-supply/





Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #67 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 30, 2021, 10:37:56 AM »
Smith Gasket

Our dedicated and sophisticated Smith Gasket team continues to deliver innovative concepts and premium products worldwide. Smith International Gulf Services supplies a wide range of oilfield products and services,including industrial gaskets advanced cutting service and high-tech testing facilities such as RING TYPE JOINTS TYPE R, RING TYPE JOINTS TYPE RX,RING TYPE JOINTS TYPE BX , SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS, etc.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/other-part-supply/smith-gasket-other-part-supply/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #68 เมื่อ: พฤศจิกายน 30, 2021, 11:32:49 AM »
Other parts supply

Theses are other part supplies from many leading manufacturers brands which are related to the fuel industry such as HONEYWELL, SMITH GASKET ,ORION, MAGNETROL
      - HONEYWELL
      - SMITH GASKET
      - ORION
      - MAGNETROL
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/other-part-supply/



Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #69 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 14, 2021, 06:48:37 AM »
What is Cryogenic Tanks

Cryogenic Tanks
Metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy generation, and food processing are among businesses that use liquefied gases. A growing number of these industrial gases are now given to customers in liquid form at cryogenic temperatures, enabling them to be stored on-site for future use.

Cryogenic tanks are used to safeguard cryogenic liquids. Cryogenic liquids are typically liquefied gases with temperatures as low as -150 °C. Byproducts include oxygen, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium. Cryogenic tanks may also be used to store gases at higher temperatures, such as LNG, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. These are components of gas supply systems used in a number of sectors including metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy generation, and food processing. Low temperature chilling applications such as engineering shrink fitting, food freezing, and bio-sample storage also make use of cryogenic liquids.

Cryogenic tanks are thermally insulated, generally with a vacuum jacket, and are designed and manufactured to rigorous specifications in compliance with international design norms. They may be fixed, movable, or transportable.

Static cryogenic tanks are designed for permanent usage; however, transportable small tanks on wheels for use in workshops and laboratories are provided. Because static cryogenic tanks are often classified as pressure vessels, new tanks and associated systems will be constructed and installed in accordance with the Pressure Equipment (Safety) Regulations. For applications requiring direct access to the liquid, non-pressurized open neck vessels (Dewar flasks) are also available. The tanks are available in a range of sizes, pressures, and flow rates to meet the diverse demands of the customers. Tanks used to transport cryogenic liquids must comply with the Regulations on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and the Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment.

Cryogenic tank use, operation, and maintenance
All relevant rules, such as the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations for static tanks and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations for transportable tanks, must be followed while operating and maintaining cryogenic tanks. Cryogenic tanks must be maintained and handled by trained personnel.

The Regulations require cryogenic tanks to be inspected on a regular basis, as well as routinely maintained and subjected to formal examinations on a periodic basis for static tanks. To ensure that the tank is in safe operating condition between official examination times, an inspection and maintenance program should be created. This will include a Written Scheme of Examination created by a competent person(s), as well as periodic formal examinations conducted in accordance with the scheme. Refer to BCGA CP 39.

Transportable tanks must be inspected and tested on a regular basis, which may only be done by an Inspection Body recognized by the National Competent Authority, Department for Transport, in the United Kingdom (DfT). The Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA) website provides information on Examination Bodies that have been authorized to execute various activities relating to tank and/or pressure equipment inspection.

All inspections, examinations, and tests are documented, and these documents must be kept for the duration of the tank’s life.

Users and owners of cryogenic tanks have legal requirements and a duty of care to ensure that their equipment is properly maintained and operated. BCGA L12 provides best practices guidance and help. According to BCGA CP 48, a gas supplier will only fill a tank if it is safe to do so. The user must undertake routine safety inspections. According to BCGA L11, daily inspections must be undertaken. While in use, a little quantity of frosting and ice may be seen. Small quantities of ice should not cause concern, but the quantity of ice should be monitored on a frequent basis. De-cing should be conducted if ice continues to collect to minimize excessive ice accumulation, according to BCGA L21.

Repair and modification of cryogenic tanks
Any repair or modification to a cryogenic tank must be performed only by a certified repairer in accordance with the design standards to which it was constructed, while taking current laws and legislation into account. Such repairs or adjustments must not threaten the structure’s integrity or the operation of any protective measures. All repairs and adjustments must be documented and kept on file for the life of the tank, according to BCGA CP 39.

Revalidation of cryogenic tanks
Cryogenic tanks must be assessed on a regular basis to ensure their safety for continued use. The revalidation period, which should not exceed 20 years, shall be determined by a Competent Person. Mobile tanks should be hired for a shorter period of time due to the nature of their purpose. Refer to BCGA CP 39. When a tank is revalidated, a report is created that must be kept together with the tank data for the life of the tank.

Cryogenic tank disposal
Because certain cryogenic tanks contain hazardous compounds in their vacuum region, such as perlite, they should only be disposed of by a certified and experienced disposal company. All pressure equipment must be designed to be non-reusable.

Committee
Technical Sub-Committee (TSC) 1 is in charge of committees within BCGA cryogenic tanks. TSC1 information is available to members via the ‘Members’ section.

Publications
BCGA produces a range of publications that give knowledge and help on how to use, store, transport, and handle cryogenic gases appropriately. The ‘Publications’ page contains links to all BCGA publications. The following are particularly noteworthy:
BCGA CP 26 – Bulk liquid carbon dioxide storage on the premises of users.
BCGA CP 27 – Transportable vacuum-insulated containers with a capacity of no more than 1000 litres.
BCGA CP 36 – Cryogenic liquid storage on the premises of the user.
BCGA CP 39 – Pressure equipment in-service requirements (gases storage and gas distribution systems).
BCGA CP 46 – Cryogenic flammable fluid storage.
BCGA CP 48 – The safe filling of tanks owned and/or managed by third parties
BCGA GN 19 – Cryogenic sample storage systems (Biostores).
BCGA TIS 23 – BCGA policy on static cryogenic liquid storage tank interior inspection and proof pressure testing.
BCGA L 11 – Cryogenic tank safety inspections
BCGA L 12 – Your Liquid Gas Storage Tank Responsibilities
BCGA L 21 – Cryogenic Installation Managing the accumulation of ice
In the refrigeration process, three main components that we encounter unavoidably are: Condenser, Chiller and Chiller. LGN system and Cryogenic system are also, comprised of this 3 main equipment.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-cryogenic-tanks/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #70 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 14, 2021, 07:13:36 AM »
What is LNG Cylinder

LNG Cylinder
Natural gas is mostly composed of methane (often at least 90%), although it may also include ethane, propane, and heavier hydrocarbons. The “pipeline” of natural gas may also include trace quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water. During the pre-treatment process, oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water are all removed.

The liquefaction process compresses, cools, condenses, and reduces the pressure and temperature at which methane, the principal component of natural gas, liquefies. The whole process may be adjusted to produce the purest form of LNG.

Storage and regasification of LNG Cylinder
By storing LNG and providing natural gas to final users, LNG receiving terminals contribute to the LNG value chain. A pipeline, LNG storage tanks, compressors, vaporizers, pumps, and other components are often included. The LNG from the LNG carrier ship is transferred to the storage tank through the unloading pipeline. The stored LNG is transported to the vaporizer process by a pump in the storage tank. The vaporization process is used to provide natural gas to the end user.

Recirculation, depressurization, and unloading are all steps in the LNG unloading process. To prevent pipeline heat prior to LNG unloading, the unloading pipeline must be kept cryogenic. A little amount of LNG from the storage tank is continually cycled through the pipeline during the recirculation stage to keep it cool. The pipeline pressure is decreased to the amount necessary to carry LNG from the carrier to the storage tank during the depressurization process. Following the unloading stage, the process advances to the first phase of recirculation.

The vapor from the LNG constantly evaporates due to the absorbed heat in the storage tank and the cryogenic pipelines during the unloading and storage of LNG. This vapor is referred to as boil-off gas (BOG). Because of the 600-fold increase in volume, it may cause physical damage in LNG facilities. When the BOG is over-treated, more energy is used. As a consequence, effective BOG management is required for energy savings. For LNG receiving facilities, re-condensation and direct compression are popular BOG handling processes. Using a BOG compressor, BOG from the storage tank is compressed to roughly 10 bars and blended with enough send-out LNG to generate a liquid mixture, which is then pumped into the re-condenser. The liquid combination is compressed to supply pressure and evaporated by saltwater in a high-pressure (HP) pump. The BOG will not be condensed in the re-condenser if the LNG rate indicated in the requests is insufficient to condense all of it. The HP compressor compresses the residual BOG in the re-condenser to pipeline pressure and instantly delivers it to the pipeline, where it is mixed with the natural gas (Park et al., 2010). Because the HP compressor uses a substantial amount of energy, it is desirable to decrease the HP compressor’s operation.

Refrigeration
No amount of insulation, no matter how efficient, can keep the temperature of LNG cold on its own. LNG is stored as a “boiling cryogen,” which implies that at its boiling point at the pressure at which it is stored, it is a very cold liquid. The temperature of stored LNG is comparable to that of boiling water, but 470°F [243°C] lower. The temperature of boiling water (212°F [100°C]) does not change with increasing heat because it is cooled by evaporation (steam generation). Similarly, if kept at constant pressure, LNG will keep its temperature close to constant. This is referred to as “auto refrigeration.” As long as the steam (LNG vapor boil off) is allowed to depart the tea kettle, the temperature will remain constant (tank).

If the vapor is not removed, the pressure and temperature inside the vessel will rise. Even at 100 psig [6.7 barg], the temperature of the LNG will be about -200°F [-129°C].

Cylinder of LNG Vehicle Fuel
The vehicle cylinder is a vacuum super insulated cryogenic container that allows liquid natural gas to be stored at low temperatures for lengthy periods of time with very little usage.
        - Make safety your first concern. Only manufacture LNG cylinders that pass the inspection items outlined in the Codes and Standards.
       - Extremely long service life Using acquired expertise and know-how, manufacture cryogenic liquefied gas cylinders for industrial applications.
        - Superior thermal insulation 90 percent insulation technology that does not bend even after being completely charged for 5 days
        - A straightforward repair structures
        - Plan for easy component replacement in the case of a problem.
        - Customized production based on customer specifications We have superior cylinder design and manufacturing methods that enable us to respond swiftly to demands regardless of vehicle type or volume.

As we can see, LNG storage system is working on the very low range of temperature, or on the cryogenic process. It is important and mandatory that to operate in the low region temperature, the materials and process have to withstand the cryogenic effect. This causes the cryogenic tanks to be considered as one of the main component and important equipment for LNG Storage System as well.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-lng-cylinder/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #71 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 14, 2021, 01:02:42 PM »
What is LNG STORAGE SYSTEMS

LNG STORAGE SYSTEMS
Natural gas provides clean, reliable, and cost-effective energy to people all around the world. Natural gas is a cryogen, which implies that at extremely low temperatures it is a liquid. Natural gas may be transported as a liquid from locations with abundant supply to areas with high demand in an efficient and safe manner.

LNG storage tank systems keep the gas in a liquid state for storage or transmission. These tank systems are meticulously designed and well-built. In LNG storage systems, auto-refrigeration is employed to maintain constant pressure and temperature in the tank. This method is, in reality, quite old. West Virginia built the first natural gas liquefaction plant in 1917. Many advancements have been made since then to increase natural gas storage, but the systems continue to function in the same way. Here’s what we need to know before designing and constructing an LNG storage system.

API Standards and Codes
In the 1960s, the American Petroleum Institute (API) established rules for the design, construction, and material selection of storage tank systems. These standards contribute to the overall safety and quality of the industry. API codes are also continually updated to reflect industry innovations and best practices.

Types of LNG Storage Tanks
Liquefied gas storage tanks are classed based on their kind and size using a range of standards and guidelines that differ in terms of when they were published and the quantity of information they give. The wording used by the two German standards, DIN EN 1473 and DIN EN 14620, is even diametrically opposite. This section will utilize either the vocabulary from the British equivalent, BS EN 1473, or the nomenclature from API 625. API 625’s British counterpart is BS EN 1473. From a practical sense, the phrase “containment tank system,” as used in API 625, seems to be the most appropriate, since the multiple, yet coordinated, components interact to create a cohesive system. Containment tank systems are categorized as single, double, or complete according to the standards EEMUA, BS 7777, EN 1473, EN 14620-1, NFPA 59A, and API 625. The membrane tank is an extra tank type that is detailed in further detail in the European standards EN 1473 and EN 14620.

Until the 1970s, the only kind of tank built was the single-wall tank. The hazard scenarios that resulted from abnormal actions such as inner tank failure, fire, blast pressure wave, and impact inspired the subsequent further development of the various types of tanks or tank systems, as well as the associated requirements placed on the materials and construction details. Because of the threats that a tank failure brings to the surrounding areas, it is essential to choose the proper kind of tank system.

The repercussions of a failure of the inner container on the tank as a whole and its surroundings for three commonly used tank systems will be shown utilizing the failure of the inner container. The evolution of these three tank systems will also be studied.

System with a single containment tank
A container that is both liquid and vapor tight is referred to as a single containment tank system. It may be built as a single-wall, liquid- and vapor-tight structure, or as a combination of inner and outside containers. In the latter case, the inner container is open at the top and liquid tight. When an outside container is used, it is largely to enclose the insulation and protect it from moisture, as well as to accommodate the gas vapor overpressure. It is not designed or intended to store LNG that has spilled from the tank. If there is just one containment tank, it must be surrounded by some form of safety barrier, usually an earth embankment, to prevent the liquid from escaping uncontrolled and causing damage.

The inside container of an EN 14620 container must be made of steel, but API 625 permits for the use of prestressed concrete in some situations. If you use an outside container, it is normally made of carbon steel to keep the elements out.

System with two separate containment tanks
Double containment tank systems are made up of a liquid- and vapor-tight primary container that satisfies the criteria for a single containment tank system but is contained within a secondary container that fits the criteria for a double containment tank system (Fig. 4.2). In the event of a leak, it is intended to be open at the top and capable of capturing any liquefied gas that escapes. On the other hand, it is not meant to obstruct gas escape. In order for the primary and secondary containers to operate effectively, no more than 6 m must be left between them. According to API 625, both steel and prestressed concrete are permissible materials for both containers.

System with a Complete Containment Tank
A complete containment tank system is made up of primary and secondary storage containers that work together to provide a comprehensive and integrated storage system. The primary container is a cylindrical steel tank with a single self-supporting and self-contained shell. Alternatively, it might be open at the top, rendering it incapable of holding any vapors, or it could be built with a dome roof, preventing vapor from escaping in such a case.

The secondary container must be a self-supporting tank made of steel or concrete with a dome roof in order to qualify. If the main container is open at the top, the secondary container must function as the primary vapor containment for the tank during normal operation. In the case of a leak from the primary container, the secondary container must be capable of storing the liquefied gas and remaining liquid-tight while also functioning as the primary vapor containment structure. It is permissible to vent in a regulated way using the pressure release mechanism. API 625 states that “product losses due to permeability of the concrete are permitted” when the outer container is made of concrete. According to API 625, both steel and prestressed concrete are permissible materials for both containers. The existence of vapor-tightness is required for normal operation. Figure 4.3 displays a number of various design options, one of which incorporates a prestressed concrete inner tank.

The standards EN 14620-3 (Annex B) and ACI 376 (Appendix A) specify and illustrate sliding, pinned, and fixed connections between a wall and a foundation slab. Sliding or pinned joints are employed in certain circumstances, however this is only possible in small tanks operating at less severe low temperatures and consequently with less overpressure. Due to the nature of the material, the monolithic wall/base slab connection is the only practical method for LNG tanks.

In order for the system to continue to work properly in the event of inner container failure, the conventional complete containment tank with a concrete outer container and solid monolithic connection between wall and base slab must have two constructional qualities. In such a circumstance, the wall experiences a temperature difference of roughly 100 K and temperature gradients of up to 200 degrees Celsius. With the tank sizes that are commonly employed, this temperature disparity results in a radial shortening of the tank wall of 4–5 cm, depending on the diameter. If no further safeguards are taken at the wall/base slab junction, a failure of the concrete cross-section will occur. One alternative is to build a transition zone at the base of the wall that is at least 5 meters high in order to reduce the contraction of the concrete wall to a level that is commensurate with the surrounding environment. In practice, this is done by including an insulating layer between the base slab and the wall, which comprises a secondary bottom made of nickel steel (9 percent nickel content). The secondary bottom is higher up the wall than the main bottom. Thermal corner protection refers to this section, which is protected with insulation and steel plates (TCP).

This feature protects the insulation while also aiding it in retaining its thermal function, reducing the influence of temperature on the cross-section of the concrete and smoothing the development of deformation. Despite the fact that experience has shown that the risk of a single containment tank failing (assuming it was built in accordance with regulations) is extremely low, such risks can be reduced even further by introducing even stricter requirements regarding material selection, design, construction, inspection, and testing. However, the implications of a tank collapse are so severe for particular hydrocarbon chemicals that an even more complex tank design is necessary to avoid them. The tank system should be chosen with the location, operating conditions, and environmental standards in mind, among other things.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-lng-storage-systems/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #72 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 16, 2021, 02:55:05 AM »
What is Air Cooled Condenser

Air Cooled Condenser
Due to rising environmental laws and public pressure, many facilities are being forced to convert existing power plants to closed-circuit cooling water systems or even dry cooling alternatives, rather than continuing to utilize once-through river or ocean cooling water. In arid locations, there simply isn’t enough water to fulfill the needs of both power plants and people.

Dry cooling may also be chosen early in a project by the intelligent developer since it widens plant siting options and may significantly speed up construction permit clearing because water use constraints are avoided. Even a six-month delay in a project’s timeframe may drastically affect its economics and easily cover the greater capital cost of dry cooling systems.

Basic Concepts of Air Cooled Condenser
         - ACC is a direct dry cooling system that uses vacuum to condense steam inside air-cooled finned tubes.
         - Ducting (for steam transmission), a finned tube heat exchanger, axial fans, motors, gear boxes, pipes, and tanks are the primary components of an ACC (for condensate collection).
         - To condense the steam, ambient air passes across a finned tube heat exchanger with a forced draft axial fan.

The ACC’s major component is the finned tube heat exchanger, which comes in a variety of configurations:
         - SRC (Single Row Condenser) 
         - MRC (Multi Row Condenser) (MRC)

The basics of air cooled condenser design
In contrast to once-through water-cooled facilities, direct dry cooling condenses turbine exhaust steam inside finned tubes that are externally cooled by ambient air rather than sea or river water. There are two methods to circulate ambient air for condensate cooling: employ fans to move the air or take use of nature’s draft.

The well-known hyperbolic tower, which can reach heights of more than 300 feet and is outfitted with a series of heat exchangers, is used in the natural draft system. The second, more well-known design alternative is the air-cooled condenser, which uses motor-driven fans rather than hot air’s inherent buoyancy. Natural draft is a specific use for small places due to the vast size of hyperbolic structures. As a consequence, an air cooled condenser with mechanical draw is used in about 90% of the world’s dry-cooled power plants.

The steam from the turbine exhaust enters a steam distribution manifold located on top of the ACC structure. The steam is subsequently diffused by fin tube heat exchangers arranged in an A-shape in a “roof structure.” The cooling effect of ambient air drawn over the external finned surface of the tubes by the fans causes steam to condense inside the tubes. The fans are positioned at the base of the A-shape structure. Condensate drains from the fin tube heat exchangers into condensate manifolds and then to a condensate tank before being routed to the boiler or the typical feed heating plant.

An ACC operates under vacuum in the same manner as a conventional surface condenser does. Air and other non-condensable gases enter the steam through a number of sources, including system border leaks and the steam turbine. Non-condensable gases are evacuated in the “secondary” portion of the ACC, which is attached to vacuum pumps or air ejectors that exhaust the non-condensable gases to the atmosphere.

The fundamental difference between ACC designs from different manufacturers is the heat exchanger and its finned tubes. Heat exchangers are classified into two types: single-row and multi-row. There are several arguments for and against the advantages of each idea. In very cold conditions, the single-row architecture is obviously preferable. Furthermore, the market provides three tube shapes: round, oval, and flat. The most sophisticated tubes are spherical and flat, and they perform well in practically all conditions.

Suppliers also vary in terms of fin shape. Certain fin shapes are less prone to fouling and mechanically more resilient under transitory conditions. Fins of the best quality have a strong connection to the bare tube, resulting in a useful life expectancy comparable to that of power plants.

The last critical design element is the material utilized for the finned tubes. Aluminum fins brazed on flat bare aluminum tubes wrapped in aluminum, or oval galvanized finned tube bundles, are usually considered as the two most reliable power plant technologies.

If ACC is selected, a plant site in China, as well as other locations across the world, is not required to be near a water source. Transmission lines and either gas distribution lines (for combined-cycle facilities) or rail lines might be optimized instead (for coal-fired plants). China’s solid fuel plants are often situated near coal mines, explaining the country’s present interest in air cooling. Finally, if a lake, river, or coastal plant site is not required, property costs may be reduced.

Air Cooled Condenser Market
During the 1960s and 1990s, Europe had a very small market for large or medium-sized power plants. It was instead reliant on enormous coal-fired power plants and nuclear reactors. In contrast, due to water constraint, dry-cooling designs have risen in popularity in the Middle East, China, South Africa, and the United States (at coal mine locations, in desert environs, or for other similar reasons). The worldwide market for dry cooling began to flourish after 1990, and it has more than quadrupled in the previous 13 years.

Given China’s large electrical requirements, the market for dry-cooling equipment is expected to remain active in the near future. Reasonable growth is also expected in Europe, as some European Union member countries renew their interest in managing future water supplies. The Middle East (Emirates area) and India will surely become two tremendously important markets in the near future. The market in the United States has been gradually growing since the middle of 2005
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-air-cooled-condenser/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #73 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 16, 2021, 03:27:25 AM »
What is Vaporizer

Vaporizer
Heat is used by vaporizers to evaporate a working fluid. They are often compared to industrial boilers, but do not generate significant pressures. In low pressure vaporizers, the vaporized stream is typically used as the heat exchange fluid. They are also capable of evaporating liquid fuels and cryogenic liquids.

Vaporizer Types
The primary distinction between vaporizers is their function. Vaporizers are devices that either produce vapor or transfer heat. Vaporizers, which generate vapor from a liquid stream, are frequently used. Propane vaporizers, for example, evaporate liquid propane (lp) to provide propane gas to equipment. In frigid areas where natural vaporization from storage is insufficient, or in systems with high vapor needs, this is essential.

Vaporizers may also be used with other fuels such as gasoline and kerosene, most notably for engine fuel injection. They may also superheat or evaporate low-temperature fluids such as liquefied natural gas or liquid nitrogen. They may also be used to heat liquid feeds in order to generate steam or other hot gases.

Vaporizers may also be used as heat transfer devices, thanks to the use of vaporized heat transfer fluids and refrigerants. Using vapors to transport liquids or solids over surfaces decreases pressure and increases temperature uniformity. These devices make use of a shell and tube heat exchanger, with the vaporized fluid contained inside or outside the tubes. Heat exchange vaporizers may use single-component or multi-component heat transfer fluids.

Heat Source
The heating source of the evaporated fluid distinguishes vaporizers.
         - Ambient vaporizers evaporate cryogenic and other cold liquids using ambient heat.
         - Pre-heated water or another hot liquid is used to evaporate in hot water vaporizers. This helps temperature control.
         - Radiant heat vaporizers heat using radiant energy rather than convection or conduction.
         - Preheated steam or a comparable hot gas is used to vaporize in steam vaporizers. This enhances temperature control and heat transfer to the boiling liquid.

Performance Specs
The performance of a vaporizer is determined by a few key parameters. The capacity of the device is measured in gallons per hour (gph), kilograms per hour (kg/h), or similar mass or volume per time units. Rather than heat transfer vaporizers, this standard is used to assess vaporizers. The maximum working temperature of the vaporizer (or the maximum heat transfer fluid temperature of the system)

Power requirements for vaporizers that use electric heat or other electrical equipment. kW is the most used unit of measurement for power (kW). The maximum pressure at a particular temperature is referred to as the operating pressure (typically the maximum temperature). Pressure is often given in pounds per square inch (psi) (psi).

Features & Extras
In certain circumstances, the features or supplemental equipment of a vaporizer are crucial. Condensate pumps are used to push excess fluid or condensate back into the vaporizer system. Because of gravity return, the vaporizer does not need a pump to return the condensed fluid.

Hartford loops are used in most vaporizer systems to prevent liquid from flowing in the wrong direction due to gravity. They keep an eye on and adjust the liquid levels in the vaporizer tank. The power (voltage and/or current) of the vaporizer is regulated by power controls. Parts may be replaced without first emptying the system, saving time and money on maintenance and repairs.

Standards
Standards for industrial vaporizers have been set by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). These specifications ensure that the equipment is both safe and efficient. For further assurance, industrial vaporizers may be certified with the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-vaporizer/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #74 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 17, 2021, 12:14:01 PM »
What is Steel Pipe


Steel Pipe
Steel pipes are cylindrical steel tubes that are utilized in a number of industrial and infrastructural applications. They are the most often utilized product in the steel industry. Pipe is mostly used to transport liquids or gases underground, such as oil, gas, and water. Despite this, pipes of varied diameters are widely used in industry and construction. A common example of home manufacturing is the thin steel tubing that powers the cooling mechanism in refrigerators. In the building industry, pipes are utilized for heating and plumbing. Handrails, bike racks, and pipe bollards may all be made out of steel pipe of different sizes.

Steel Pipe Manufacturing Process
This ubiquitous building material is created in two unique techniques, beginning with the melting of raw components and ending with the molding or welding of completed products:
1. The first stage is to transform raw steel into a more useable form.
Both methods must start with the manufacture of high-quality steel. Raw steel is produced at foundries by melting raw materials in a furnace. Components may be added to the molten metal and impurities removed to exactly balance the composition. After that, the molten steel is either poured into molds to make ingots or transferred to a continuous casting process to produce slabs, billets, and blooms. Pipe is made from slabs or billets of steel.


2. Steel slabs and steel skelp in pipe manufacturing
Slabs are heated to 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit to make steel skelp. The heat causes a scale to build on the surface, which must be cleaned using a scale breaker and high-pressure cleaning. After the steel slab has been cleaned, it is hot rolled into thin, narrow steel strips known as skelp. Skelp is pickled (surface cleaned) using sulfuric acid before being washed and rolled into massive spools as a raw material for pipe manufacturing. The width of the skelp determines the diameter of the pipe that may be manufactured.

Steps to completion
Pipes may be straightened as a last manufacturing process before being joined. Threaded couplings are often used in small bore pipe, while welded-on flanges are used in larger bore piping. For quality control purposes, measuring equipment verifies the finished pipe’s measurements and stamps the information on the pipe’s side.

Control of quality
Using x-ray equipment to check the pipe for faults, especially along the weld, is one of the quality controls processes. Another way is to pressure test the pipe by filling it with water and then holding it under pressure for a certain amount of time to identify any defects that might lead to catastrophic collapse before putting it into service.

Steel pipe Utilization
Pipes are used in many different purposes, including as building, transportation, and industrial. They are measured by their exterior diameter, with the interior diameter varying according to wall thickness. Certain applications need thicker walls than others, depending on the stresses that the pipe must handle.

Utilization in structures
In architecture and construction, structural applications are common. Steel tubes are a phrase that is often used to refer to the building material in a variety of industries.

Pipes used in construction
Steel tubes are used to strengthen foundations using a procedure known as piling. In these cases, the tube is driven deep into the earth before the foundation is laid. It provides stability for a towering building, or a structure built on unsteady ground. Fundamentally, pile foundations are of two types:
         - End bearing piles have a bottom end that is supported by a thick layer of soil or rock. The load of the building is communicated to the strong layer through the pile. 
         - Friction piles transfer the weight of the building to the soil by friction across the whole height of the pile. The pile’s whole surface area contributes to force transmission to the earth.

Poles for scaffolding
Scaffolding poles are constructed by connecting steel tubes in a cage to provide access to places above ground level for construction workers.

Industrial application
Guard rails: constructed of steel tubing, they are used to protect cyclists and pedestrians. Guard rails, which are also made of steel tubes, are an appealing safety feature for stairs and balconies.
Bollards: Bollards are used to safeguard people, buildings, and infrastructure by separating them from motor traffic.
Bike racks: Steel tubes are bent to form a huge range of commercial bike racks. Steel’s strong material properties make it impregnable to intruders.

Transportation use
Steel pipes are the most often utilized material for product transportation since they are well-suited for long-term installations. It can be buried underground because to its hardness and resistance to disintegration. Low pressure applications do not need the use of robust pipes since they are not exposed to significant stresses. A small wall thickness allows for a more cost-effective production procedure. Specifications for more specific applications, such as pipes used in the oil and gas industry, are more stringent. Because of the hazardous nature of the chemical being transported and the possibility of increased pressure on the line, a high degree of strength and hence a thicker wall are required. This frequently results in a higher price. Quality control is critical for these applications.

Steel pipes, which are used to transport items such as oil, gas, and water, are perfect for long-term installations.

Procedure for specifying steel pipe
There may be some confusion about how these materials are defined and what they mean in terms of the actual qualities of the pipe. The three most often referenced organizations in North America for pipe standards are the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Specifications are divided into three categories:
1. Pipe nominal diameter
“Nominal Pipe Size,” or NPS, is the acronym for pipe size. The origins of NPS values for smaller diameter pipes (NPS 12) differ from those for bigger diameter pipes. However, all pipes with the same NPS number have the same outside or outside diameter (OD). Internal diameters vary depending on the thickness of the metal’s wall. This is done to guarantee that the same structural supports may be used for all pipes with the same NPS value, regardless of wall thickness.

2. Schedules
Steel pipe schedules are a means of specifying the wall thickness of a pipe. This is an important feature since it has a direct link with the pipe’s strength and suitability for certain applications. Given the design pressure and allowable stress, a pipe schedule is a dimensionless number that is calculated using the wall thickness design formula. Here are some examples of schedule numbers: The most common schedules are 5, 5S, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS, and XXS. The schedule number denotes the thickness of the pipe’s wall. The inner diameter of a pipe is defined by the schedule number, just as the OD is determined by the NPS number.

3. The pipe’s weight
The NPS (outside diameter) and the schedule may be used to calculate the weight of a pipe (wall thickness). The constant is calculated using steel’s theoretical weight of 40.8 pounds per square foot per inch of thickness: W = t (OD – t) multiplied by 10.69

Where: 
         - W represents for weight (in pounds per foot). 
         - OD stands for outer diameter; and 
         - t stands for thickness.

4. Certification
A Material Test Report, also known as a Mill Test Report, is provided by manufacturers to confirm that the product meets the stipulated chemical analysis and mechanical qualities. The MTR will contain all relevant product information and will accompany it throughout its life.
Some of the common parameters that an MTR may record are as follows:
         - The material’s chemical makeup, including the quantity of carbon, alloys, and sulfur.
         - Material dimensions, weight, identity, and grade
         - The heat number of the material, which corresponds to the processing batch; and
         - Tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation are mechanical qualities. The most often referenced steel bollard standards are ASTM A53 and ASTM A500.
For Oil & Gas and Petroleum Business, the types or the standard for the steel or metal pipes that has been used widely is API (American Petroleum Institute) standard. We call the pipes manufactured according to API standard as “API Pipes”
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-steel-pipe/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #75 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 17, 2021, 12:48:16 PM »
What is Absorption Chiller


In contrast to typical chillers, absorption chillers use waste heat from other processes or equipment to drive a thermodynamic process that allows water to be chilled and distributed for HVAC needs. In place of conventional refrigerants, water is often coupled with either ammonia or lithium bromide, with lithium bromide being the more preferred option because to its non-toxicity.

Important factors
Because absorption chillers do not require electric compressors, they may provide significant cooling capacity while contributing to peak energy consumption. The most crucial element to consider when assessing the use of such a chiller is that they do need a significant and consistent source of waste heat to function. Although industrial manufacturing facilities are the most obvious candidates, other places like as university campuses, larger hospital complexes, or large hotels may also benefit considerably from the addition of an absorption chiller.

The advantages of using absorption chillers
The principal refrigerants used in absorption chillers have no negative effects on global warming or ozone depletion. An absorption chiller might assist the business in saving money on electricity, hot water, heating, and cooling. The lack of compressors in the machine decreases noise and vibration in the building, resulting in a tranquil environment with high reliability.

An absorption chiller is nearly entirely powered by heat that would otherwise be squandered. It does not need energy to generate chilled water or heat. A considerably larger capacity will not be required in an emergency backup power system.

The Science of Absorption Chilled Water
A condenser, generator, evaporator, absorber, and heat exchanger are all part of an absorption chiller. Initially, the absorber contains the refrigerant or lithium bromide water. It will be driven into the generator tank on the top of the chiller through the heat exchanger. The chiller’s generator will use solar heat or waste steam from other systems. Lithium bromide and water are separated by heat. Water evaporates slowly and rises to the condenser, while lithium bromide sinks.

A conduit will carry the lithium bromide back to the absorber. The vapor will next pass via a cooling tower. The air pressure in the cooling tower pipe is lower than in the condenser. When the air pressure drops, water condenses. The cold water is then evaporated and re-mixed with lithium bromide

An absorption chiller, in a nutshell, cools water by quickly changing pressure. As the water in the generator warms up, the air pressure rises. Water vaporizes when it loses heat. The vapor is then sent to the evaporator to cool. The vapor swiftly cools and condenses to become cold water. Heat is absorbed by vapor, which then condenses to form water.

When water evaporates, it absorbs heat. In a low-pressure environment, the vapor cools and returns to water. The water in the absorber reacts with the lithium bromide and returns to the heat exchanger, carrying with it undesired heat.

With low energy input, an absorption chiller generates cooled water. Throughout the heating and cooling cycles, it will continue to remove heat from the structure.

Working concept
To describe the technique, let’s start with the generator. A condenser, absorber, and evaporator are all part of this chiller. This process produces a liquid refrigerant solution that can be pushed to greater pressures. This pumping method is used to replace mechanical compression that is powered by electricity.

Generator
Pour in the heated, diluted solution. On a heat exchanger that carries hot water or another source of heat. When the solution boils, it produces refrigerant vapor as well as a hot concentrated solution.

Condenser
Once in the condenser, the vapor is converted back into a liquid via a colder heat exchanger. The liquid refrigerant can reach the evaporator thanks to a temperature and pressure reduction expansion valve.

Evaporator
Low-pressure refrigerant is introduced as a mixture of liquid and vapor. This area is designed to help you unwind. The evaporator chills water for cooling in commercial buildings.

Absorber
The refrigerant enters the absorber after passing through the evaporator. The absorber absorbs the refrigerant vapor and dilutes it. The heat generated is dissipated by the cooling water.

Absorption chillers Utilization
While absorption chillers outperform conventional cooling systems in the areas we’ve just addressed, proper and regular maintenance is essential for best performance. This is the only way to ensure that the equipment will endure the whole 25 years. A chiller will run perfectly if maintenance staff focus on the following areas: controls, mechanical components, and heat transfer components.

Here are a few examples of issues that need to be addressed:
        - Inspect pump shaft seals for wear. • Check for refrigerant leaks. The loss rate should not exceed 1%.
        - Heat transfer surfaces must be clean and sludge and scale free.
        - Heat exchanger tubes should be free of cracking, pitting, and corrosion.
        - Pump bearings may need to be repaired or cleaned.

Absorption Chiller Selection
Even if you use all of the recommended maintenance measures, the equipment will deteriorate, and your maintenance costs will climb. That might be the time to upgrade to more modern, durable, and efficient equipment. If the system is working at part load for a lengthy period of time, a chiller with high part load efficiency may be all that is needed. It is also vital to size the chiller correctly. A chiller that is too big for a certain application will almost definitely operate inefficiently. If exposed to such stresses over an extended length of time, it may develop serious problems. A detailed evaluation of operational requirements, facility type, and timetable should be used to establish the chiller upgrade/selection procedure.

Advantages of absorption chillers

Advantages of absorption chillers (Source: Shuangliang)
It was briefly discussed at the opening of this article. The following are scenarios when absorption chillers would be favored, according to the concept of absorption chiller functioning and demands.
          - Expensive electricity and inexpensive gasoline 
          - Check to see whether the change is substantial enough.
          - There isn’t enough electricity.
          - Waste heat is provided (for example from exhaust flow or hot water from engine jacket).
          - A adequate supply of hot water or low-grade waste steam.

It will also fit in situations where a quiet environment is required — an absorption chiller is a silent, wear-free system due to the lack of moving components — and needs no maintenance.

How to Install an Absorption Chiller
It is best to work with a contractor that is familiar with sophisticated systems like absorption chillers. Experts can help you design, install, and finance an absorption chiller system that makes financial sense for your company and has a clear path to delivering a fair return on investment.
Apart from its equipment and units that combine into LNG process or LNG storage system, one of the most important part of the system is the connection between each unit and each section. Of course, in the Oil & Gas business or in the petroleum business we use steel pipe as the main transportation means and as the linkage between modules.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-absorption-chiller/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #76 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 19, 2021, 01:20:16 AM »
What is Gasket

Gasket

A gasket is an elastomeric component that seals the gap between two surfaces. They are often fashioned from a variety of materials, including rubber, cork or paper, metal, copper, and foam. Because of its adaptability, this versatile element may be used in a range of applications. Anti-vibration, packing, cleanliness, noise and sound reduction, and, probably most importantly, sealing is among them. Gaskets are used in practically every sector, including food, petrochemicals, medicines, water, and gas. Gasket materials are chosen for their qualities and ability to withstand a wide range of circumstances, such as mining and deep-sea environments, as well as resistance to chemicals, alkaline acids, high temperatures, and pressure.

Gasket Functions
In order for a gasket to function correctly and seal away any leaks, it must be compressed enough to produce a full barrier that will establish a pressure-tight seal and protect the contents inside the seal. Furthermore, gaskets safeguard an application’s moving components by keeping them from rubbing against hard surfaces and producing friction. An elastomeric gasket is a component that forms a seal between two surfaces by preventing the passage of gases and liquids. They’re great for filling gaps and linking two surfaces. A gasket must be composed of a material that is easily deformed and covers any defects since it will cover the space between these two surfaces. Compounds like spiral wrapped gaskets are often produced from a mix of metallic and softer filler material (flexible graphite). Metal gaskets must be pressed at a higher tension most of the time in order to seal correctly. In certain cases, a sealant must be applied directly on the gasket to provide a leak-free seal.

Applications for gaskets
Because they are available in a range of specifications, gaskets are a significant component in many manufacturing processes. The material used for a gasket is chosen for its resistance to chemicals, temperatures (or temperature changes), pressures, acids, gases, and, in certain situations, electromagnetic or electrical forces. Gaskets are often found in vehicles, trains, airplanes, boats, electrical equipment, pumps, and a range of other applications.

Industries that utilize gasket
A gasket material has the ability to withstand some of the most demanding conditions for industrial sealing goods, such as:
• Chemical synthesis
• Production of electricity
• Petrochemical and deep-sea exploration
• Oil and gas
• Mining
• Military
• Aerospace
• Filtration
• Food and Beverage
• Pharmaceutical
• Industries involved in sanitary processing

Gaskets may be manufactured using a variety of methods, depending on the material and application, including:
• Extrusion of rubber
• Cold bond splicing and hot vulcanized splicing
• Compression molding, injection molding, and transfer molding
• Slitting with precision
• Personalized die cutting
• Waterjet chop

Gaskets and seals are utilized in almost every application and industry, including oil and gas, manufacturing and industrial applications, pulp and paper production, and agricultural equipment. Gaskets that have gotten worn or broken may be easily repaired. When equipment is removed and rebuilt, it is usual procedure to change gaskets.

Gasket Varieties
In process pipework, three kinds of gaskets are utilized.
• Non-Metallic
• Metallic
• Composite

Gasket Made of Non-Metallic Materials
The most often used materials for this kind of gasket include graphite, rubber, Teflon, PTFE, and compressed non-asbestos fiber (CNAF). These gaskets are also known as soft gaskets. It might have a whole face or an inside bolt circle.
• Non-metallic gaskets are used with low-pressure class flanges such as the 150 and 300 Class, as well as low-temperature applications. Graphite gaskets, on the other hand, can tolerate temperatures of up to 500 degrees Celsius.
• Rubber and elastomer gaskets are used in utility lines rather than hydrocarbon services; and 
• Nonmetallic gaskets are affordable and readily available.
Flat-face (FF) flanges need full-face gaskets. Flat ring gaskets may be used in conjunction with raised face (RF) flanges.

Ring Joint Gasket / Metal Gasket / RTJ Gasket
Soft iron, low carbon steel, stainless steel, monel, and inconel are some of the materials used to make metal gaskets. These gaskets are also known as ring gaskets and RTJ gaskets.
• Metallic gaskets are often used in high-pressure class flanges, typically exceeding 900 Class; however, they may also be used in high-temperature applications.
• High tension bolting is required when utilizing metallic gaskets, which are both durable and costly.
The RTJ Gasket is machined into a groove on both mating flanges’ flange faces. With RTJ flanges, two types of metallic gaskets are used: Octagonal and Oval. The distinction may be noted in their cross-section views.

Semi-Metallic or Composite Gasket
Metal and nonmetal materials are used to make composite gaskets. Several material combinations are possible depending on the service need.
• Spiral wrapped, metal jacketed, and kamprofile gaskets are well-known in the composite gasket category. 
• Composite gaskets are less costly than metal gaskets, but they must be treated carefully. Composite gaskets are used on raised face, male-female, and tongue-and-groove flanges. '

Importance of Gasket
A flange joint leak might be disastrous. A leaking flange loses both product and energy. No plant operator wants to have a dangerous or hazardous chemical leak that might harm people or the environment. The gasket may help in the establishment of reliable sealing and the prevention of flange joint leakage. Considerations such as: The kinds of gaskets to be used in a certain fluid service are dictated by factors such as:
Temperature – The gasket material must be able to withstand the whole design temperature range of the fluid being managed.
• Pressure – The gasket material must be able to bear the whole design pressure range of the fluid being managed.
• Corrosion resistance – When in contact with the fluid or exposed to the environment, the gasket material should not degrade.
• Fluid types – If installed in a line that handles more than one kind of fluid, the gasket material should be able to handle a wide range of fluids.
• Robustness – The gasket must be able to withstand any movement induced by temperature and pressure changes.
• Availability – The gasket should be easy to find.
• Price – A cheap and unreliable gasket should not be utilized alongside an expensive gasket.

Gasket Selection
The following considerations must be considered while selecting a gasket:
• The gasket material’s compatibility with the fluid.
• The ability to resist the system’s pressure-temperature.
• The gasket’s service life

Before selecting a gasket selection, it is critical to understand the requirements of the application. Gaskets must maintain a seal against all operating forces for an appropriate length of time. There are eight critical characteristics that every gasket must have in order to accomplish this:
• Impermeability – The gasket must be impermeable to the fluid being sealed.
• Compressibility – To form the first seal, the gasket should compress into the flaws on the flange sealing faces.
• Stress relaxation (creep resistance) – When exposed to load and temperature, the gasket should not exhibit considerable flow (creep). This flow will enable the bolts to relax, reducing surface tension on the gasket and causing leakage.
• Resilience – Although usually stable, flanges do shift somewhat relative to one another as temperature and pressure cycle. Such motions should be compensated for by the gasket.
• Chemical resistance –The gasket should be chemically resistant to the process media being handled. Similarly, the gasket material should not contaminate the process media.
• Temperature resistance –The gasket must be able to withstand the impacts of the process’s highest and lowest temperatures, as well as external ambient temperatures.
• Anti-stick – After usage, the gasket must be readily removed.
• Corrosion resistance — The gasket must not corrode the flange faces.

Materials for Gaskets and Seals
Seals and gaskets may be manufactured from a variety of materials, depending on the purposes for which they are intended. Gaskets and seals are often made from the following materials:
• Buna ‘N’ (Nitrile)
• CSR (Hypalon®)
• EPDM
• Flourosilicone
• Fluoroelastomer (FKM)
• Natural Rubber (polyisoprene)
• Neoprene
• Polyurethane
• Silicone
• Synthetic Polyisoprene
• Thermoplastic Rubber (TPR)
• Viton®
Gasket is the sealing function at connections. What goes along with Gasket at each connection are fastening and tightening tools such as Bolts and Nuts. They are both indispensable in connections and sealing functions as well.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-gasket/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #77 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 19, 2021, 02:54:49 AM »
What is Bolts and Nuts

Fundamentals of Bolts and Nuts
A bolt, unlike a screw, is usually accompanied with a nut and a washer in order to function as a fastener. Tightening the nut pushes the things you’re joining together, pressing the washer against one and yanking the bolt head against the other. When matching a nut and washer to a bolt, material, finish, size, and thread type must all be taken into account.

Materials and finishes for bolts, nuts, and washers
Steel is a common material for nuts and bolts however, if they will be exposed to moisture or pressure-treated wood, both of which may corrode steel fasteners, conventional steel fasteners must be coated with a corrosion-resistant coating. There are several popular do-it-yourself finishes:
        - Zinc-plated bolts are resistant to corrosion but should only be used indoors. The finish is often thin, will not endure outside weather, and is not suited for use with pressure-treated wood. Yellow zinc or yellow dichromate forms a coating that protects the zinc plating from corrosion, but it is not suitable for outdoor use or when used with pressure-treated wood.
       - Hot-dipped galvanized nuts, bolts, and washers are less prone to corrosion. These fasteners are intended for outdoor use and are suitable for use with pressure-treated wood.
        - Powder-coated paint finishes are meant to be used on the interior.
        - Black phosphate is a coating that improves paint adhesion. 
        - Black phosphate is a coating that improves paint adhesion.  Product information should include specific uses.
        - Stainless steel is very corrosion resistant. 
        - Stainless steel nuts, bolts, and washers are often used in exterior projects and when dealing with pressure-treated wood. 
        - Hardened steel bolts are frequently used in automotive assembly due to their increased strength.

Sizes of Bolts, Nuts, and Washers
Bolt, nut, and washer sizes will be provided in metric millimeters (mm) or standard (SAE) inches (in). The diameter of a bolt is normally the outside diameter of the threads. Contrast the exterior diameter of a bolt with the inside diameter of a nut and washer. In SAE nuts and bolts, diameters of 1/4 inch or less are represented by a # and a whole number (a bolt with a primary diameter of 3/16 inch is a #10 bolt). The fewer the number, the smaller the dimension.
The length indicates the distance between the end of the bolt and the underside of the bolt head, commonly known as the bearing surface.

Thread Types for Bolts, Nuts, and Washers
Nuts and bolts are threaded either coarsely or finely. 
        - Coarse-hreaded nuts and bolts have more space between the threads, so match the threading of a nut to the threading of a bolt. They will be distinguished by a higher thread pitch. Coarse-threaded bolts and nuts may be fastened faster because they are less likely to get stuck or cross-threaded. 
        - Fine-threaded nuts and bolts with smaller thread pitches have less thread gaps, resulting in a tight, strong grip. A fine-threaded bolt’s nut is less likely to be dislodged by vibrations but installing or removing the nut will take longer.

Types of Bolts
Different bolts have different functions. Here are some of the most popular kinds of bolts used in DIY projects.

Bolts with Hex Heads
A hex bolt’s hexagonal head serves as a surface for grasping or twisting the bolt with a wrench, socket and ratchet, or drill/driver. Some hex bolts have threads that extend the whole length of the shank and are often used in threaded holes. They provide high grip strength because they distribute tension over the whole bolt. The thicker, unthreaded segment of a partially threaded bolt provides strength to the fastening process. Partially threaded hex bolts are also beneficial for operations that need more force to hold the work pieces together. Hex-head bolts are commonly used in construction and automotive applications.

Bolts for Carriage
The domed head of a carriage bolt provides it a smooth, polished appearance. It also adds a layer of safety and security since it does not have a driving surface like a hex-head bolt. Carriage bolts are fastened with washers and hex nuts after being inserted into predrilled holes. The nut is secured to the work piece by a square area under the head, allowing you to attach it with a single wrench, socket, or driver bit. Carriage bolts are used in a wide range of applications, such as decks, furniture, and outdoor playsets.

Bolts for anchoring
Anchor bolts are classified as either those meant for use in concrete foundations or those intended for use in a wall. L-bolts are intended for usage in wet concrete. While the concrete cures, the bolt is kept in place. L-bolts may be used to secure a deck post to a concrete pad. To secure retrofit anchor bolts in existing concrete, an adhesive is employed. When drilling into a wall stud is not possible, toggle bolts provide support for hanging things.

U-Bolts
U-bolts have two threaded shanks with a rounded or flattened appearance. Rounded U-bolts are used to secure pipe or conduit to a surface, while squared U-bolts are used to fasten things to a surface, such as a square post. The U-bolt is held in position against the item being secured by two nuts and a metal plate.

Bolts for the eyes
Eye bolts have a loop or ring end and a threaded end for attaching a chain or rope to a wood, metal, or concrete surface. Eye bolts are designed to be used in pre-drilled holes and come with a matching nut. Screw eyes are similar in appearance but have coarser self-tapping threads and a pointed tip that enables them to be driven into a pilot hole in a woodwork item.

Bolts for hanging
A hanger bolt is a fastener that does not have a head. It has machined threads on one end that accept a nut. The bolt’s coarse, self-tapping threads and a point on the other end allow it to be driven into a predrilled hole in wood or comparable material.

Bolts that split
Split bolts are designed to provide secure electrical connections. They enable the splicing of two wires as well as the connection of cables to terminals. Split bolts made of diverse materials work with a variety of wire types. Make sure your bolt is rated for the kind of wire you’re using.

Bolts for the body
Body bolts are often used in the automotive industry. They are used to attach fenders and other components to a car’s body. They have a hex head, a threaded shank, and a washer.

Bolts for Axles
Axle bolts attach wheels to machines like lawnmowers and wagons. The shank’s threaded end receives a locking nut, while the smooth section near the head allows the wheels to rotate.

Types of Nuts
Nuts work with different types of bolts to secure the fasteners. Although some nuts may be tightened by hand, the majority are designed to be driven using a wrench or socket driver. Here are some of the most often used bolt hardware nuts.

Hexagon Nuts
Hex nuts have a six-sided driving surface. They’re a common sort of nut used to connect wood and metal components with bolts of the same size and thread type.

Lock Nuts
Nylon lock nuts have a hexagonal head with an integrated nylon ring. When you tighten a lock nut onto a bolt, the threading of the bolt displaces or deforms the ring, causing friction and preventing loosening from slippage or vibration. A castle nut is a kind of locking nut that works by putting a pin or clip into a hole in the bolt. Rotation is restricted when notches etched into the nut come to rest on the pin.

Wing nuts
Wing nuts are designed to be tightened and loosened without the need of tools; the wings allow you to tighten and loosen them with your thumb and finger. These nuts are used to make adjustments and removals quick and easy. They may be found on drum sets, light stands, and other items that need to be adjusted on a regular basis.

Cap Nuts
Cap nuts, sometimes known as acorn nuts, are domed and feature a hexagonal driving surface. They are often hand installable. They screw onto the exposed threads of a bolt or threaded rod to protect them and provide a decorative look. Cap nuts may be found in projects like outdoor playsets and fences.

Nuts in squares
Because they have four relatively large driving surfaces, square nuts are easy to grab and spin. The nut’s form allows for a larger surface area to contact the fastening piece, providing better resistance to loosening and tightening. Use flat washers with square nuts to prevent the edges of the nuts from scratching the work piece.

Once you have constructed and successfully constructed you LNG process and system, another step is to put them into use. One of the most popular usage of LNG process and system is in the Cogeneration Power Plant.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-bolts-and-nuts/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #78 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 21, 2021, 02:52:51 PM »
What is Department of Energy Business

Department of Energy Business Energy Ministry
The Ministry of Energy is in charge of energy acquisition, development, and administration, as well as other obligations that are stipulated in relevant legislation as the Ministry’s or its departments’ authority and duties.

The following departments, together with their respective tasks, report to the Ministry of Energy:
1. Minister’s Office: Responsible for and supportive of the Minister of Energy’s political missions in partnership with the cabinet, Parliament, and the general public; and manages responses to enquiries, explanations on motions, legislation, and other political issues.
2. Permanent Secretary’s Office: Create strategies and translate Ministry policies into action plans, allocate resources and manage staff to achieve Ministry objectives and missions, and coordinate international energy cooperation.
3. Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDP): Promote energy efficiency, monitor energy conservation initiatives, undertake alternative energy research, and disseminate energy-related technologies.
4. Department of Energy Business (DOEB): Regulate energy quality and safety standards, including their environmental and security consequences, and continually improve standards to protect the interests of consumers. '
5. Department of Mineral Fuels (DMF): Promote and expedite energy procurement by allowing for the discovery and development of energy resources both in Thailand and beyond
6. Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO): Make recommendations on national energy policies and planning, establish energy measures, and implement preventive and corrective measures in the event of an oil shortage to ensure an adequate and efficient energy supply that is consistent with the country’s economic conditions.

The following are the State Enterprises under the Ministry of Energy: 
1. Thailand’s Electricity Generating Authority (EGAT)
2. Metropolitan Authority for Electricity (MEA)
3. Provincial Authority for Electricity (PEA)

The following two autonomous public companies are administered by the Ministry of Energy:
1. PTT Public Company Limited (PTT)
2. Public Company Bangchak Petroleum Limited (BCP)

The following are the Public Organizations: 
1. The Energy Fund Administration Institute (Public Organization), EFAI.
2. The Electricity Regulatory Board, abbreviated as the ERB

Department of Energy Business (DOEB)
As previously stated, the Department of Energy Business is a department within the Ministry of Energy that is responsible for quality and safety regulations for any energy business in the Kingdom of Thailand to ensure quality and safety standards are met by any manufacturers or organizations doing business with energy and fuels.

DOEB is in charge of releasing mandatory regulations and standards for business-entrepreneurs to comply with in order to do business in Thailand, as well as inspecting, verifying, and approving for related certificates and verifications for equipment, activities, and tools related to energy business, as well as updating and revising those standards and measurements on a regular basis in accordance with international agreements.

DOEB Missions:
1. Supervise the security, safety, trade quality and environment of the energy business in accordance with good governance principles.
2. To be the country’s energy business information center
3. Enhancing knowledge on energy for entrepreneurs and people
4. Promote the energy business to have fair competition protect consumers and people
5. Develop standards, quality, and safety of the energy business to meet international standards.

DOEB Visions:
Supervise the energy business according to international standards by good governance.
As DOEB is the regulator and enhancer for any Energy related business in Thailand, it is mandatory and necessary to align and work with DOEB for safe and complete operation of energy and natural fuel resources.  Once your business and process system are registered and issued license by DOEB, you can commercially run your business and start the process right away.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-department-of-energy-business/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #79 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 22, 2021, 02:32:17 PM »
Welspun

Welspun Corp Limited (WCL)  is one of world’s-leading welded line pipe manufacturer, and the flagship company of the Welspun Group. Over the last two decades, WCL innovative approach and, technical capabilities have helped deliver some of the path-breaking pipeline projects across the world such as Welspun Hot Pulled Induction Bends,  Welspun Longitudinal (LSAW), Welspun Spiral (HSAW)

https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/welspun/
 

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #80 เมื่อ: ธันวาคม 23, 2021, 01:58:47 AM »
Safety - Honeywell Gas & Flame Detection products

Safety
Honeywell Gas & Flame Detection products

Safety equipment plays an important role in every process of the factory. Various gas detection products and solutions are designed specially to protect your employees and factories. Moreover, it’s easy installation and low-cost maintenance.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/other-part-supply/honeywell-other-part-supply/safety-honeywell-other-part-supply/


Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #81 เมื่อ: มกราคม 10, 2022, 09:44:30 PM »
ธุรกิจร้านอาหาร เลือกบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ อย่างไรให้โดนใจลูกค้า


เมื่อเทคโนโลยีสารสนเทศเข้ามามีบทบาทสำคัญต่อการดำเนินชีวิตของคนเราในทุก ๆ ด้าน การติดต่อสื่อสารที่สะดวกรวดเร็ว รวมถึงการใช้ชีวิตที่เร่งรีบตามการพัฒนาของเทคโนโลยี ทำให้พฤติกรรมการบริโภคปรับเปลี่ยนตามไปด้วย อาหารเดลิเวอรี่ที่มีบริการจัดส่งถึงที่ทำงานหรือส่งถึงที่พักของลูกค้า กลายเป็นธุรกิจที่ตอบโจทย์ความต้องการมากที่สุด

ธุรกิจร้านอาหาร กับเทรนด์การขายอาหารเดลิเวอรี่
การสั่งอาหารเดลิเวอรี่มารับประทานที่สำนักงานในช่วงพักเที่ยงหรือสั่งมารับประทานที่บ้าน เป็นธุรกิจบริการจากร้านอาหารที่กำลังเป็นเทรนด์นิยม เพราะนอกจากเหมาะกับการใช้ชีวิตที่ไลฟ์สไตล์ของคนในสังคม ซึ่งส่วนใหญ่มีความเรียบง่าย เน้นความสะดวกสบายและรวดเร็ว  และยังเลือกใช้บริการไม่ยากในยุคนี้เพราะมีร้านอาหารมากมายที่เปิดให้บริการจัดส่งอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ควบคู่ไปกับการนั่งรับประทานอาหารในร้าน หรือเปิดเป็นครัวในบ้านไม่มีหน้าร้าน โดยรับสั่งอาหารทางออนไลน์หรือช่องทางอื่น ๆ ตามที่ทางร้านกำหนด

เมื่อธุรกิจอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ เป็นบริการที่ตอบโจทย์ความต้องการของกลุ่มลูกค้า การแข่งขันด้านการตลาดก็สูงตามไปด้วย ไม่เฉพาะเรื่องของรสชาติและเมนูอาหารที่โดดเด่นเท่านั้น แต่การเลือกบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ หรือกล่องเดลิเวอรี่ ก็เป็นส่วนประกอบสำคัญที่สามารถสร้างความพึงพอใจ ทำให้ลูกค้ากลับมาใช้บริการซ้ำหรือกลายเป็นลูกค้าประจำได้

เลือกบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ อย่างไรให้โดนใจลูกค้า
บรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ ถือเป็นหัวใจสำคัญของระบบจัดส่งอาหาร ไม่ว่าจะเป็นการจัดส่งอาหารให้ลูกค้าโดยพนักงานของทางร้าน หรือจัดส่งโดยผู้ให้บริการฟู๊ดเดลิเวอรี่ที่มีอยู่มากมาย เช่น แกร็บฟู้ด ฟู้ดแพนด้า ไลน์แมน สกู๊ตตาร์ โกเจ๊ก หรืออื่น ๆ สิ่งที่สามารถสร้างความพึงพอใจให้กับลูกค้าตั้งแต่แรกรับสินค้าก็คือบรรจุภัณฑ์หรือแพคเกจจิ้ง สำหรับการเลือกบรรจุภัณฑ์หรือกล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ให้โดนใจลูกค้า มีดังนี้

1. การออกแบบและดีไซน์โดดเด่นสะดุดตา
บรรจุภัณฑ์หรือกล่องอาหารที่ใช้จัดส่งเดลิเวอรี่ ก็เปรียบเสมือนหน้าตาของร้านอาหารที่ลูกค้าอาจตัดสินใจเข้าไปนั่งรับประทานเพราะรู้สึกพึงพอใจหรือมั่นใจในรสชาติและคุณภาพของอาหารจากการจัดตกแต่งร้านที่มีเอกลักษณ์โดดเด่นสวยงาม กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่พร้อมการบรรจุหีบห่อที่สวยงามสะดุดตา คือกลยุทธ์ด้านการตลาดที่สามารถสร้างความพึงพอใจให้กับลูกค้าได้ตั้งแต่แรกพบ

สำหรับร้านอาหารและการขายอาหารแบบเดลิเวอรี่ ปัจจุบันมีบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารแบบสำเร็จรูปผลิตออกมาจำหน่ายหลากหลายรูปแบบและหลายประเภท ผู้ประกอบการสามารถเลือกซื้อและเลือกรูปแบบได้ตามความต้องการ หรือหากผู้ประกอบการต้องการออกแบบและสั่งผลิตจากโรงงานโดยตรง บริษัทผู้รับผลิตส่วนใหญ่ยังมีบริการแบบ One stop service คือให้บริการครอบคลุมตั้งแต่การออกแบบให้เหมาะสมกับประเภทอาหารหรือผลิตภัณฑ์ การเลือกวัสดุบรรจุภัณฑ์ และการผลิต

2. เลือกวัสดุบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารที่เหมาะสมหรือเป็นมิตรต่อสิ่งแวดล้อม
กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ เป็นบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารชนิดหนึ่งที่ผลิตจากวัสดุหลายประเภท คุณสมบัติของวัสดุแต่ละชนิดก็จะเหมาะสมกับอาหารและการใช้งานที่แตกต่างกันไป เช่น
          - บรรจุภัณฑ์พลาสติก มีดีไซน์หลากหลายรูปแบบให้เลือกใช้ คุณสมบัติที่โดดเด่นของวัสดุบรรจุภัณฑ์ชนิดนี้ก็คือ มีน้ำหนักเบา คงทน สามารถวางเรียงซ้อนได้มากเหมาะกับอาหารประเภทน้ำ เนื่องจากป้องกันการซึมผ่านของน้ำได้ บางรูปแบบนอกจากบรรจุได้ทั้งของร้อนและเย็นแล้ว บางชนิดยังใช้อุ่นในไมโครเวฟได้ด้วย
          - บรรจุภัณฑ์หรือกล่องอาหารทำจากโฟม เป็นกล่องอาหารที่ยังมีผลิตออกมาจำหน่าย เพราะใช้งานง่ายราคาไม่แพง แต่มีข้อด้อยที่ผู้ประกอบการร้านอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ไม่นิยมใช้คือไม่สามารถย่อยสลายได้เองตามธรรมชาติ และไม่ทนต่อความร้อน หากใช้บรรจุอาหารที่มีความร้อนก็อาจจะทำให้อาหารปนเปื้อนสารก่อมะเร็งได้
          - บรรจุภัณฑ์ที่เป็นมิตรต่อสิ่งแวดล้อม เช่น กล่องอาหารทำจากกระดาษ กล่องอาหารเยื่อธรรมชาติและถุงกระดาษ คุณสมบัติที่โดดเด่นของบรรจุภัณฑ์ผลิตจากวัสดุธรรมชาติ สามารถย่อยสลายได้เองการเลือกใช้จึงช่วยลดภาวะสิ่งแวดล้อม และเป็นกล่องเดลิเวอรี่ที่ได้รับความนิยมมากที่สุด

3. บรรจุภัณฑ์ที่ช่วยรักษาคุณภาพอาหาร อาหารเดลิเวอรี่บางเมนูไม่เหมาะสำหรับการนำไปอุ่นให้ร้อน การเลือกใช้กล่องอาหารจึงนอกจากจะต้องรักษาคุณภาพอาหารให้คงที่จนถึงมือลูกค้า บรรจุภัณฑ์จะต้องช่วยยืดอายุการเก็บรักษาอาหารได้ด้วย

4. เป็นบรรจุภัณฑ์ที่ช่วยส่งเสริมการตลาด บรรจุภัณฑ์ที่ช่วยส่งเสริมการตลาด เช่น กล่องบรรจุอาหารที่มีการพิมพ์โลโก้หรือมีแบรนด์ของร้านพร้อมช่องทางการติดต่อติดอยู่ หรือมีรายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับปริมาณและส่วนประกอบในเมนูอาหารนั้น ๆ เพราะรายละเอียดเหล่านี้ไม่เพียงช่วยส่งเสริมการตลาดทำให้ลูกค้าติดต่อได้ง่ายและได้ฐานลูกค้าใหม่ ๆ เพิ่มมากขึ้นแล้ว แบรนด์หรือโลโก้ที่ติดอยู่กับบรรจุภัณฑ์ยังสร้างความมั่นใจให้กับลูกค้าในการเลือกใช้บริการเดลิเวอรี่อีกด้วย

5. บรรจุภัณฑ์ที่มีความมั่นคง แข็งแรง เหมาะกับการใช้งาน บรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ การออกแบบหรือเลือกบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารที่เหมาะสมกับประเภทของ
อาหาร รวมทั้งการออกแบบให้มีความสวยงาม ได้สัดส่วนที่ถูกต้องเหมาะสม ยังช่วยให้การจัดส่งอาหารสะดวกขึ้น สามารถป้องกันอาหารไม่ให้เกิดความเสียหายมากระหว่างการเดินทางได้เป็นอย่างดี

บรรจุภัณฑ์เพื่อสิ่งแวดล้อม สำคัญต่อธุรกิจอาหารเดลิเวอรี่อย่างไร
บรรจุภัณฑ์เพื่อสิ่งแวดล้อมผลิต คือบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ที่ผลิตจากวัสดุธรรมชาติ  เมื่อนำมาใช้แล้วปลอดภัยต่อผู้บริโภค ไม่ส่งผลกระทบสภาพแวดล้อม โดยบรรจุภัณฑ์เพื่อสิ่งแวดล้อมที่ผู้ประกอบการร้านอาหารนิยมใช้ มีทั้งแบบสำเร็จรูปที่โรงงานผลิตออกมาวางจำหน่าย และสั่งผลิตตามรูปแบบที่ต้องการ ความสำคัญของบรรจุภัณฑ์เพื่อสิ่งแวดล้อม ต่อธุรกิจขายอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ มีดังนี้

1. สร้างความรู้สึกมีส่วนร่วมต่อการอนุรักษ์สิ่งแวดล้อมให้กับลูกค้า การออกแบบหรือเลือกใช้วัสดุบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่จากธรรมชาติ มีส่วนสำคัญในการช่วยลดปัญหาภาวะโลกร้อนและมลภาวะเป็นพิษต่าง ๆ ได้เป็นอย่างดี และจากการรณรงค์ให้ตระหนักถึงปัญหาสิ่งแวดล้อมของภาครัฐ ทำให้การอนุรักษ์สิ่งแวดล้อมเป็นเทรนด์ที่กำลังมาแรง เมื่อผู้ประกอบการเลือกใช้บรรจุภัณฑ์ที่เป็นมิตรต่อสิ่งแวดล้อม ก็จะส่งผลให้ลูกค้าหรือผู้บริโภครู้สึกมีส่วนร่วมต่อการอนุรักษ์จากการใช้กล่องเดลิเวอรี่ที่ผลิต่จากวัสดุจากธรรมชาติซึ่งสามารถย่อยสลายได้เอง

2. การใช้บรรจุภัณฑ์รักษ์โลก สร้างจุดขายให้กับธุรกิจ กล่องเดลิเวอรี่ ผลิตจากวัสดุธรรมชาติเป็นบรรจุภัณฑ์รักษ์โลกที่มีลักษณะโดดเด่นมีเอกลักษณ์ในตัวของบรรจุภัณฑ์อยู่แล้ว เมื่อสั่งผลิตและมีการออกแบบที่สวยสะดุดตา ก็สามารถสร้างจุดขายหรือสร้างภาพลักษณ์ให้กับธุรกิจ ทำให้แบรนด์หรือร้านอาหารของเราเป็นที่จดจำและได้รับความนิยมจากผู้บริโภคได้ง่ายจากภาพลักษณ์ที่โดดเด่นของธุรกิจ

3. การใช้บรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่เพื่อสิ่งแวดล้อมช่วยลดปริมาณขยะ ปัญหามลภาวะหรือปัญหาสิ่งแวดล้อมเป็นพิษ ส่วนหนึ่งเกิดจากขยะบรรจุภัณฑ์ที่ไม่สามามารถย่อยสลายได้ตามธรรมชาติ หรือต้องใช้ระยะเวลาในการย่อยสลาย และวัสดุบรรจุภัณฑ์บางชนิดเมื่อกำจัดผิดวิธีเช่นการเผาทำลายยังก่อให้เกิดมลพิษ การเลือกใช้บรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่เพื่อสิ่งแวดล้อมนอกจากช่วยลดปริมาณขยะแล้ว ยังเป็นการรับผิดชอบต่อสังคมส่วนรวมซึ่งเป็นการสร้างภาพลักษณ์ที่ดีให้กับธุรกิจอีกทางหนึ่งด้วย

4. เป็นการสร้างกลยุทธ์ด้านการตลาด การขายอาหารโดยเฉพาะอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ เป็นธุรกิจที่มีการแข่งขันด้านการตลาดสูงมาก เพราะอาหารเป็นสิ่งที่คนต้องบริโภคทุกวัน การออกแบบและสั่งผลิตบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารเดลิเวอรี่รูปแบบใหม่ ๆเพื่อให้ได้รูปแบบที่แตกต่าง ถือเป็นการสร้างกลยุทธ์เพื่อใช้สู้กับคู่แข่งด้านการตลาดได้อย่างเห็นผล เพราะนอกจากเป็นการส่งเสริมการขายและสร้างการมีส่วนร่วมของผู้บริโภคแล้ว ยังช่วยให้ร้านอาหารของเราเป็นที่จดจำของลูกค้าได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ

5. สร้างแบรนด์ผ่านบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารเดลิเวอรี่ กล่องอาหารหรือบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารจากวัสดุธรรมชาติ  มีหลากหลายรูปแบบและหลายขนาดให้เลือกใช้ เช่น กล่องอาหารกระดาษ หรือถุงกระดาษ นอกจากสามารถเลือกใช้ให้เหมาะสมกับประเภทของอาหารแล้ว การสร้างแบรนด์ผ่านบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารเดลิเวอรี่เหล่านี้ทำได้โดยการพิมพ์โลโก้ลงบนสติกเกอร์ สายคาด หรือสกรีนบนฝากล่อง และยังสามารถใส่ที่อยู่เบอร์ติดต่อเพิ่มเติมลงไปได้อีกด้วย ซึ่งช่วยให้ลูกค้าจดจำแบรนด์หรือจดจำร้านอาหารของเราได้ง่าย

6. บรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารจากวัสดุธรรมชาติมีน้ำหนักเบา หัวใจสำคัญของธุรกิจอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ ก็คือความรวดเร็วในการจัดส่งสินค้าเพราะนอกจากเรื่องของการรักษาคุณภาพของหารให้คงรสชาติไม่แตกต่างไปจากการเดินทางมานั่งรับประทานที่ร้านแล้ว กรณีที่ทางร้านบริการจัดส่งอาหารให้กับลูกค้าโดยไม่คิดค่าใช้จ่ายเพิ่ม การเลือกใช้กล่องเดลิเวอรี่จากวัสดุธรรมชาติยังมีน้ำหนักเบา ช่วยให้ง่ายต่อการจัดส่งและยังขนส่งได้ครั้งละมาก ๆ ทำให้ลดต้นทุนในการจัดส่งได้ด้วย

7. ปลอดภัยต่อสุขภาพของผู้บริโภค กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ที่เป็นมิตรต่อสิ่งแวดล้อม ผลิตจากวัสดุธรรมชาติ นอกจากการออกแบบให้มีความแข็งแรงทนทาน สามารถป้องกันการซึมของอากาศ น้ำ หรือน้ำมัน ใช้แล้วไม่เป็นสนิม เมื่อถูกความร้อนไม่ทำให้เกิดสารปนเปื้อน ปลอดภัยต่อสุขภาพของผู้บริโภค

8. ตอบโจทย์ความต้องการของสังคม การที่องค์กรภาครัฐจัดกิจกรรมรณรงค์ให้คนในสังคมเห็นความสำคัญของของปัญหาสิ่งแวดล้อม ส่งผลให้ผู้บริโภคโดยเฉพาะการสั่งอาหารเดลิเวอรี่เห็นความสำคัญของบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ที่ผลิตจากวัสดุธรรมชาติ เพื่อช่วยลดปัญหาขยะจากบรรจุภัณฑ์ ดังนั้นการที่ผู้ประกอบการร้านอาหารเลือกใช้กล่องอาหารกระดาษ จึงส่งผลดีและสามารถเพิ่มยอดขายให้กับธุรกิจได้ เพราะตอบโจทย์ความต้องการของสังคม

สรุป การพัฒนาของเทคโนโลยี ส่งผลให้การขายอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ เป็นธุรกิจที่กำลังมาแรงเนื่องจากเหมาะกับไลฟสไตล์ของคนในสังคมที่ต้องทำงานแข่งกับเวลา รวมทั้งการใช้ชีวิตที่เรียบง่าย เน้นความสะดวกสบาย รวดเร็ว และให้ความสำคัญกับการดูแลสุขภาพ กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่หรือบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ ที่ผลิตจากวัสดุธรรมชาติจึงถือเป็นหัวใจสำคัญของธุรกิจ การเลือกบรรจุภัณฑ์เดลิเวอรี่ กล่องอาหารเดลิเวอรี่ ให้โดนใจลูกค้าก็คือ การออกแบบและดีไซน์โดดเด่นสะดุดตา เลือกวัสดุบรรจุภัณฑ์อาหารที่เหมาะสมหรือเป็นมิตรต่อสิ่งแวดล้อม ช่วยรักษาคุณภาพอาหาร เป็นบรรจุภัณฑ์ที่ช่วยส่งเสริมการตลาด และมีความมั่นคงแข็งแรงเหมาะกับการใช้งาน
https://thaifoodpackaging.com/blog/food-delivery-with-restaurant/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #82 เมื่อ: มกราคม 19, 2022, 04:00:50 AM »
Flowserve - valves are ready to service all over the world.

Flowserve
Our valves are designed with specific functions to match with our customer’s requirement.

Flowserve
valves are ready to service all over the world. Moreover, we do trust in safe environment, so we have many expert engineers to help you with useful information.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/flowserve/

Flowserve Plug Value for oil & gas isolation

Lubricated Plug Values - Twin Isolation

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #83 เมื่อ: มกราคม 19, 2022, 04:46:38 AM »
Flowserve Plug Valve for oil&gas isolation

For the biggest challenges of fluid motion control, customers worldwide rely on the engineering, project management and service expertise of . We Flowserve Plug Valve deliver more than the most complete portfolio of reliable valves, pumps and seals available.


With global team, which is more than 18,000 employees in 55 countries, we can provide an ultimate solution from project planning to the maintenance process with the most sophisticated technology by Flowserve Plug Valve. As a professional team, we are able to exceed your expectation and willing to underdo with any failure.

Due to long-established reputation since 1896, Serck Audco  came out with newest valve design ,manufacturing techniques and well-rounded service from around the world. Our products are used widely in oil and gas , food, chemical and mining industries.

Why Select a Flowserve Plug Valve?
- PRESSURE BALANCED PLUG VALVES

PRESSURE BALANCED PLUG VALVES


Large seating area enhances the Super-H resistance to erosion.

The wide area maximizes the effectiveness of sealant, so that any unlikely seat damage can solve injecting Serck Audco Sealant, restoring the valve zero leakage bubble tight shut-off capabilities without the need of seats replacement.

Moreover, Sealant can inject with the valve in any position and also under pressure, making the valve in-line maintainable.

- BALL VALVES

BALL VALVES

The thin seating area can be damaged by the erosion action of the media and the particles contained in it.

Difference between Sealant for Plug Valve and Sealant for Ball Valve
Sealants for Ball Valves valve generally designs to stop leakages on damaged ball valves. To achieve this and since Ball Valves have thin seating areas, sealants are thicker and include a higher percentage of solid fillers in an effort to plug seat damages and not be washed away by pressure.

Difference between Sealant for Plug Valve and Sealant for Ball Valve 1


Futhermore, Sealants for Flowserve Plug Valve designs to provide general lubrication and bubble tight sealing performance. Since plug valves have relatively wide seating areas, sealants can be thinner and still provide zero leakage over several operations.

Using a Ball Valve sealant on a Plug Valve is not recommended. Moreover,The thicker nature (and high percentage of solid fillers) of a Ball Valve sealant will increase operating torques due to the wide contact area between plug and body and even lead to valve jamming if the sealant dries up.

Difference between Sealant for Plug Valve and Sealant for Ball Valve 2

Flowserve Plug Valve Products
    1)  Lubricated Plug Valves – SUPER H

BRAND: Serck Audco
The Super-H Lubricated Plug Valve is a rugged, pressure balanced plug valve designed for demanding oil and gas isolation applications where bubble tight shut-off and reliable operation are critically important.

Super-H Design
Basic design advantages of Flowserve Plug Valve such as metal-to-metal seats and a wide seating area, along with competitive pricing, have made plug valves the product of choice when the valve operates in a difficult or dirty service and/or needs to open against full differential pressure. The robust metal-to-metal seats ensure long valve life on any service, even in presence of solid particles in the line media.


Features and Benefits
Benefits

        - Certainty of zero leakage sealing down the line, even with damaged metal seats.
        - Certainty of operation with low and consistent torque which is stable over long periods of time.
        - Minimal maintenance regime.
        - Full in-line maintainability even under full pressure and without any need of shut down.
        - Assured sealing to atmosphere

How It Is Achieved
        - Precise seat mating procedures.
        - Effective sealant injection system combined with wide seating areas.
        - Pressure balanced plug as standard, with option of Protected Pressure balance®
        - Super LoMu Anti Friction Treatment on plug and stem.
        - Precise factory set plug loading
        - Provision for sealant injection for the seats
        - Provision for stem packing re-injection
        - Independent stem sealing design that can meet stringent fugitive emissions requirements.
        - All pressure seals in fire safe metal or graphite.

Design Range
        - Super-H valves are available in Regular, Short or Venturi, Pattern, in accordance with API 6D, API 599 and BS 5353. The different patterns vary in regard to face-to-face dimension and port area for a given size of valve.
        - Size Range:
        - DN 15 to 1050
        - NPS ½ to 42
        - Pressure Class Range:
        - PN 20 to 420
        - Class 150 to 2500
        - API 2000 to 10000

Standard
        - API 6D – Specification for pipeline valves
        - API 6A – Specification for wellhead equipment
        - ISO 14313 – Petroleum and natural gas industries-Pipeline valves
        - ISO 10423 – Petroleum and natural gas industries-Wellhead equipment
        - API 599 – Metal plug valves – flanged, threaded and welding ends
        - BS 5353 – Specification for steel plug valves
        - ANSI B16.10 & BS 2080. – Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions

Sample Applications
        - Bypass Equalizing Valve  : To resist the erosion caused by full differential pressure openings on a transmission line, it will seal to protect the main line valve

Bypass Equalizing Valves

        - High Pressure Gas Isolation  :  Bubble tight shut-off on one of the more searching medias

High Pressure Gas Isolation

        - Underground Storage : Protected metal seating to resist impurities and give zero leakage even on the highest pressures

Underground Storage

        - Slurry Isolation Extremely abrasive services, a robust valve with no cavities

Slurry Isolation

Reference


2)  Lubricated Plug Valves – DOUBLE ISOLATION
BRAND: Serck Audco

The Double Isolation Lubricated Plug Valve is a reliable, double isolation plug valve with two independent obturators in a single body. It is ideal for double block and bleed applications.

Design Features
        - Same face-to-face as one valve.
        - In-line emergency stem sealing
        - In-line sealant injection point
        - Choice of mounting positions for actuators and handwheels.
        - Bleed port.
        - Bleed valve flange interface

Benefits
        - Improved plant and personnel safety assured by a double isolation design that allows the operator to verify valve isolation before carrying out maintenance
        - A cost-, space- and weight-saving alternative to a double block and bleed system using two valves in a series
        - Ease of installation from a compact design with the same face-to-face dimensions as a single valve, often replacing it without the need for pipe work modifications
       - Greater process control via a pressure balanced design that provides a true bubble-tight double isolation capability within a single valve body
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/flowserve-serck-audco-plug-valve-for-oilgas-isolation/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #84 เมื่อ: มกราคม 20, 2022, 01:02:43 AM »
LUBRICATED PLUG VALVES – TWIN ISOLATION


The Twin Isolation Lubricated Plug Valve is a reliable, double isolation plug valve with two independent obturators in a single body. It is ideal for double block and bleed applications.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/lubricated-plug-valves-twin-isolation/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #85 เมื่อ: มกราคม 20, 2022, 01:34:38 AM »
Cameron Surface a leading provider of products and equipment


Cameron Surface
for the onshore, offshore and subsea oil and gas industry. We specialize in system design and project management for Onshore and offshore production.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/category/cameron-surface/