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GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand

GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« เมื่อ: กันยายน 10, 2021, 08:38:09 AM »
GMS Interneer Co., Ltd. is a solution provider, a representative, and a trusted partners to oil & gas equipment users in Thailand as well as world-class manufacturers worldwide.

Serving end users, we look for innovation and solutions from world class engineering Equipment Company to ensure the specific need is met. Partnering with worldwide manufacturers, we look for business opportunity by utilizing technical strong point of each product to complement and to enhance our customer production.

https://www.gmsthailand.com/


บริษัท จี เอ็ม เอส อินเทอร์เนียร์ จำกัด
อาคารซันทาวเวอร์สบี ชั้น 28 เลขที่ 123
ถนนวิภาวดีรังสิต แขวงจอมพล เขตจตุจักร
กรุงเทพ 10900

GMS Interneer Co.,Ltd.
28th Floor, No. 123 Suntowers Building B
Vibhavadi-Rangsit Road, Chompol,
Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Email : contact@gmsthailand.com
Tel : +66 (0)98 967 6383

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #1 เมื่อ: กันยายน 10, 2021, 08:38:26 AM »
Using Cryogenic tank and maintenance


Liquefied gases are utilized in a variety of industries, including metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy production, and food processing. Today, an increasing number of these industrial gases are supplied to clients in liquid form at cryogenic temperatures, allowing them to be stored on-site for subsequent use.

Cryogenic tanks are used to keep cryogenic liquids safe. Cryogenic liquids are usually liquefied gases with temperatures of -150 °C or below. Oxygen, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium are all common byproducts. Cryogenic tanks may also be used to store liquified gases, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide. These are gas used in a variety of industries such as metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy production, and the food industry. Cryogenic liquids are also utilized in low temperature cooling applications such as engineering shrink fitting, food freezing, and bio-sample storage.

Cryogenic tanks are thermally insulated, usually with a vacuum jacket, and are developed and built to exacting standards in accordance with international design regulations. They may be stationary, mobile, or transportable.

Static cryogenic tanks are intended for use in a permanent position; however, transportable compact tanks placed on wheels for use in workshops and labs are included. Because static cryogenic tanks are usually classed as pressure vessels, new tanks and their related systems will be built and installed in compliance with the Pressure Equipment (Safety) Regulations. Non-pressurised open neck vessels (Dewar flasks) are also available for applications needing direct access to the liquid. To suit the varied needs of the users, the tanks are available in a variety of sizes, pressures, and flow rates. Tanks used to transport cryogenic liquids must conform with the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations.

Cryogenic tank use, operation, and maintenance
Cryogenic Liquid Vacuum Storage Tank

Cryogenic tanks must be operated and maintained in accordance with all applicable laws, such as the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations for static tanks and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations for transportable tanks. Cryogenic tanks must be maintained and handled by qualified individuals.

The Regulations require cryogenic tanks to undergo regular inspection, routine maintenance, and periodic formal examination for static tanks. An inspection and maintenance schedule should be developed to guarantee that the tank is in safe working order  during official examination periods. This will comprise a Written Scheme of Examination to be developed by a competent person(s), as well as periodic formal exams to be held in line with the scheme.

Transportable tanks need periodic inspection and testing, which may only be performed by an Inspection Body authorized by the National Competent Authority, Department for Transport, in every country.

All inspections, exams, and tests are recorded, and records must be maintained throughout the tank’s entire life.

Cryogenic tank users and owners have legal obligations and a duty of care to ensure that their equipment is maintained and operated safely. A gas provider will only fill a tank after determining that it is safe to do so. Routine safety checks must be performed by the user. A little amount of icing and ice may be seen while in use. Small amounts of ice should not be a reason for worry, but the amount of ice should be checked on a regular basis. If ice continues to accumulate, de-icing should be performed to avoid excessive ice accumulation

Repair and modification of cryogenic tanks
LNG Cryogenic Liquid Lorry Tanker

Any repair or modification to a cryogenic tank must be carried out exclusively by a qualified repairer in accordance with the design codes to which it was built, taking current rules and legislation into consideration. Such repairs or changes must not jeopardize the integrity of the structure or the functioning of any protective measures.  All repairs and changes must be recorded and maintained on file for the life of the tank.

Revalidation of cryogenic tanks
Cryogenic tanks must be evaluated on a regular basis to verify that they are safe for ongoing use. A Competent Person shall determine the revalidation period, which shall not exceed 20 years. Because of the nature of their function, mobile tanks should be rented for a shorter length of time. When a tank is revalidated, a report is generated that must be maintained alongside the tank data for the duration of the tank’s life.

Cryogenic tank disposal
Because certain cryogenic tanks contain dangerous materials in their vacuum area, such as perlite, tanks should only be disposed of by a qualified and experienced disposal firm. As pressure equipment, all equipment must be made non-reusable.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/using-cryogenic-tank-and-maintenance/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #2 เมื่อ: กันยายน 10, 2021, 10:13:57 AM »
What is the operation of a CHP power plant ?


Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of two or more types of energy from a single fuel source. It is also known as combined heat and power, distributed generation, or recycled energy. Cogeneration power plants are typically 50 to 70 percent more efficient than single-generation facilities. In practice, cogeneration is the utilization of what would otherwise be wasted heat (such as a manufacturing plant’s exhaust) to generate extra energy advantage, such as heat or electricity for the building in which it is running. Cogeneration is beneficial to both the bottom line and the environment since recycling waste heat prevents other polluting fossil fuels from being burnt.

Although combined heat and power (CHP) technology is often referred to as cogeneration, there are significant distinctions. Cogeneration is the process by which a simple cycle gas turbine generates electricity and steam, as well as steam utilized in other processes such as drying. The steam, however, is not utilized to power a steam turbine.

CHP combined-cycle power plants may generate both electricity and usable heat energy from a single fuel. Thermal energy (steam or hot water) collected may be utilized for operations such as heating and cooling, as well as generating electricity for various industrial uses. CHP is used by manufacturers, municipalities, commercial buildings, and institutions such as universities, hospitals, and military sites to cut energy costs, improve power dependability, and minimize carbon emissions.

What is the process of cogeneration ?
A cogeneration plant is similar to a CHP plant in that it generates both electricity and heat. Cogen technology, on the other hand, differs from CHP in that it generates energy using a simple cycle gas turbine. The exhaust energy from the gas turbine is then utilized to generate steam. The steam is then utilized entirely in other processes, rather from being channeled to operate a steam turbine as in CHP.

What is the operation of a CHP power plant ?
A CHP power plant is a decentralized, energy-efficient way of producing heat and electricity. CHP plants may be installed in a single building or business, or they can provide electricity for a district or utility.

In CHP, a fuel is utilized to power the primary mover, which generates both electricity and heat. The heat is then utilized to bring water to a boil and create steam. Some of the steam is utilized to power a process, while the rest is used to power a steam turbine, which generates more power. In a cogen application, the steam is completely used in a process that generates no extra electricity.

Advantages of Combined Heat and Power
When compared to traditional energy generation, a CHP power plant may provide many benefits and advantages, including:
        - Greater efficiency: CHP generates both electricity and heat while using less fuel than conventional energy plants. Furthermore, it collects heat and steam to produce extra power, reducing the demand for fuel even further.


        - Lower emissions: Because CHP systems consume less fuel, they may decrease greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants.
        - Lower running expenses: The efficiency of CHP lowers down operating costs and may offer a hedge against rising energy prices.
       - Dependability: Because CHP is an onsite energy plant, it reduces dependence on the energy grid and may provide greater energy security and reliability of power generation even in the event of a catastrophe or grid interruption.
        - District heating: Cogeneration systems are used in district heating power plants to supply both energy and heating to local facilities and residences. Unused steam is channeled to generate extra electricity when a CHP system is utilized for district heating.
        - Industrial manufacturing: Industrial CHP plants enable businesses that use a lot of energy to generate their own steady supply of electricity while improving efficiency and lowering fuel usage. CHP systems may power a broad range of industrial and manufacturing operations while also producing usable energy such as high-pressure steam, process heat, mechanical energy, or electricity.
        - Commercial structures: From commercial office buildings and airports to casinos and hotels, CHP plants assist to provide clean, dependable electricity that helps fulfill baseload needs while lowering energy costs. Steam heats and cools the environment while also generating energy to power lights and electronics.
        - Institutions: Colleges and universities, hospitals, jails, military posts, and other institutions depend on CHP plants to fulfill their electrical and thermal energy requirements, as well as to improve power reliability. The CHP system may substantially reduce the costs and emissions associated with conventional forms of power generation.
        - Municipal applications: CHP is ideal for municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Anaerobic digestion generates biogas in these facilities, which may be used to power onsite generators.
       - Residential: CHP systems can power energy-intensive multifamily buildings or assist single-family houses fulfill their energy requirements.

CHP for big structures and infrastructures
combined heat and power generation (CHP) effectively contributes to the production of electricity for hospitals, airports, and other big institutions. CHP generating solutions not only help operators avoid substantial supply and distribution losses, but they also save 40% more fuel than separate generation and may help improve overall efficiency, profitability, and environmental responsibility. 
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-the-operation-of-a-chp-power-plant/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #3 เมื่อ: กันยายน 13, 2021, 06:35:48 AM »
Absorption Chiller


Absorption chillers, as opposed to traditional chillers, utilize waste heat from other processes or equipment to drive a thermodynamic process that enables water to be cooled and distributed for HVAC requirements. Water is typically combined with either ammonia or lithium bromide in lieu of traditional refrigerants, with lithium bromide being the more popular choice since it is non-toxic.

Important factors to consider while building an absorption chiller
Because absorption chillers do not use electric compressors, they may offer considerable cooling capacity to a facility while not contributing to peak energy demand. The most important factor to consider when evaluating the application of such a chiller is that they do need a substantial and constant supply of waste heat to operate. Although industrial manufacturing facilities are the most apparent choices, other locations like as university campuses, bigger hospital complexes, or large hotels may frequently benefit significantly from adding an absorption chiller.

The advantages of using absorption chillers
The primary refrigerants used in absorption chillers do not contribute to global warming or ozone depletion. An absorption chiller may help the facility save money on energy, hot water, heating, and cooling. The absence of compressors in the machine reduces noise and vibration in the building, resulting in a peaceful atmosphere with excellent dependability.
An absorption chiller is powered almost completely by heat that would otherwise be wasted. It does not need electricity to produce chilled water and heat. It will not be necessary to provide nearly as much capacity in an emergency backup power system.


The Science of Absorption Chilled Water

An absorption chiller has a condenser, generator, evaporator, absorber, and heat exchanger. The absorber initially holds lithium bromide solution. It will be forced via the heat exchanger into the generator tank on the chiller’s top. The chiller’s generator will utilize heat from the sun or hot water, steam, and flue gas from other systems. Heat separates lithium bromide and water. Water steadily evaporates and rises to the condenser, while lithium bromide sinks.

The lithium bromide will return to the absorber through a conduit. The vapor will next travel via a  cooling coil in the condenser.  Following this, the vapor is condensed to the condenser bottom.

The  water is then sent to the evaporator, where it  remove heat out of the chilled water and becomes the vapor.

When water evaporates, it takes away the heat. The vapor is then absorbed by lithium bromide solution in the absorber. The mixture flows through the heat exchanger and return to the generator.

An absorption chiller produces chilled water with little energy input. It will continue to remove heat from the building throughout the heating and cooling cycle.

More about the working concept
Firstly, a mixture of lithium bromide and water in the absorber is pumped through the heat exchanger to the generator

In order to separate the mixture in the generator, heat source from hot water, steam or flue gas will change water to vapor leaving the lithium bromide behind. Then, the vapor will flow into the condenser.

The lithium bromide won’t be left as a waste. It will form as a liquid and sink to the bottom of the generator. After that, the lithium bromide liquid flows down to the absorber once more through the heat exchanger. This liquid will spray over the absorber, so it will absorb vapor in the absorber again.

Meanwhile, the vapor from the generator is condensing into a refrigerant in condenser . Because of that, it meets with a cooling coil, whose water from cooling tower flows inside to remove heat from the vapor.

Next, the refrigerant kept in a tray flow through a pipe to the evaporator. A fixed orifice controls the volume flow rate of refrigerant. Due to vacuum condition in the evaporator, the boiling temperature of water will be quite low.


Finally, the chilled water which carries all the unwanted heat from the building or any cooling process flows through the evaporator to extract the unwanted thermal energy by spraying refrigerant over the chilled water line a. Therefore, the chilled water temperature will be decreased from 12°C to 7°C and refrigerant vapor is moving to the absorber to be absorbed with absorbent agian.

Making the most of absorption chillers
While absorption chillers are superior to traditional cooling techniques in the areas we’ve previously discussed, appropriate and frequent maintenance is required for optimum operation. This is the only method to guarantee that the equipment lasts the whole 25 years. A chiller will perform flawlessly if personnel concentrate on the following areas of maintenance: controls, mechanical components, and heat transmission components. Here are a few examples of areas that need attention:
• Pump shaft seals- inspect for wear • Refrigerant leaks- the loss rate should not exceed 1%
• Heat transfer surfaces must be clean and free of sludge and scale.
• Heat exchanger tubes – cracking, pitting, and corrosion are not desired.
• Pump bearings – repair or cleaning may be required.

Choosing the Most Effective Absorption Chiller
Even if you follow all of the aforementioned maintenance methods, the equipment will degrade, and your maintenance expenses will rise. That might be the moment to update to a more contemporary, dependable, and efficient equipment. If the system is running at part load for extended periods of time, a chiller with excellent part load efficiency may be all that is required. It is also critical to properly size the chiller. A chiller that is too large for a given application would almost certainly run at a poor efficiency. If it is subjected to such pressures for a long period of time, it may develop severe issues. The chiller upgrade/selection process should be defined by a comprehensive study of operating requirements, facility type, and timeline.

Advantages of absorption chillers

It will also fit places where a peaceful atmosphere is a necessity — an absorption chiller is a silent, wear-free system owing to the absence of moving components — and requires little maintenance.

How to Install an Absorption Chiller
It is preferable to deal with a contractor that has expertise with complex systems such as absorption chillers. Experts can assist you in designing, building, and funding an absorption chiller system that makes financial sense for your business and has a solid, obvious route to generating a fair return on investment.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/absorption-chiller/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #4 เมื่อ: กันยายน 13, 2021, 07:06:04 AM »
Basic concepts of air cooled condenser, design and trending market


Many plants are being compelled to convert existing power plants to closed-circuit cooling water systems or even dry cooling alternatives due to increasing environmental regulations and public pressure, rather than continuing to use once-through river or ocean cooling water. There just isn’t enough water available in dry areas to meet the requirements of both power plants and people.

The astute developer may also choose dry cooling early in a project since it expands plant siting choices and may substantially speed up building permit clearance because water usage concerns are eliminated. Shortening a project timeline by even six months may radically alter the economics of a project and easily offset the higher capital cost of dry cooling solutions.

Basic Concepts of Air Cooled Condenser

       - ACC is a direct dry cooling system in which steam is condensed under vacuum within air cooled finned tubes.
       - The main components of an ACC are ducting (for steam transport), a finned tube heat exchanger, axial fans, motors, gear boxes, piping, and tanks (for condensate collection).
       - Ambient air travels over a finned tube heat exchanger utilizing a forced draft axial fan to condense the steam.

The main component of the ACC is the finned tube heat exchanger, which comes in many varieties:
       - Single Row Condenser (SRC)
       - Multi Row Condenser (MRC)

The basics of air-cooled condenser design

The direct dry cooling option condenses turbine exhaust steam within finned tubes that are externally cooled by ambient air rather than sea or river water, as in once-through water-cooled plants. There are two ways to circulate the ambient air for condensate cooling: utilize fans to move the air or take use of nature’s draft.

The natural draft system employs the well-known hyperbolic tower, which may reach heights of more than 300 feet and is equipped with a series of heat exchangers. The second, more known design option is the air-cooled condenser, which employs motor-driven fans rather than relying on the natural buoyancy of heated air. Due to the enormous scale of hyperbolic towers, natural draft is a specialized application for tiny locations. As a result, about 90% of the world’s dry-cooled power plants utilize an air-cooled condenser with mechanical draft.

The steam released from the turbine exhaust enters a steam distribution manifold situated on top of the ACC construction. The steam is then dispersed through the fin tube heat exchangers, which are placed in an A-shape arrangement in a “roof structure.” Steam condenses within the tubes due to the cooling impact of ambient air pulled across the exterior finned surface of the tubes by the fans. The fans are placed at the bottom of the A-shape structure. Condensate drains from the fin tube heat exchangers into condensate manifolds and then to a condensate tank before being piped to the traditional feed heating plant or the boiler.

An ACC works under vacuum in the same way as a normal surface condenser does. Air and other non- condensable gases enter the steam via a variety of sources, including leakage through the system border and the steam turbine. Non-condensable gases are evacuated in a separate part of the ACC known as the “secondary” section, which is linked to vacuum pumps or air ejectors that exhaust the non-condensable gases to the atmosphere.

The main variation between ACC designs from various manufacturers is in the features of the heat exchanger and its finned tubes. There are two kinds of heat exchangers: single-row and multi-row. There are many arguments for and against each concept’s benefits. In addition, the market offers three tube shapes: round, oval, and flat. The most advanced tubes are round and flat, and they work well in almost all situations.

Suppliers also differ in terms of fin form. In transitory circumstances, certain fin forms are less prone to fouling and mechanically more robust. Fins of the highest grade have a strong connection to the bare tube, ensuring a usable life expectancy similar to power plants.

The material used for the finned tubes is the last crucial design element. Aluminum fins brazed on flat bare tubes covered with aluminum, or oval galvanized finned tube bundles, are widely regarded as the two most dependable power plant technology.

If ACC is chosen, a plant site in China, as well as other places across the globe, does not need to be near a water supply. Instead, transmission lines and either gas distribution lines (for combined-cycle facilities) or rail lines may be optimized (for coal-fired plants). Solid fuel plants in China are often built near coal mines, which explains the country’s current interest in air cooling. Finally, if a lake, river, or coastal plant location is not needed, the cost of property may be lowered.

The market is trending up.
Europe had a relatively limited market for big or medium power plants during the 1960s and 1990s. It instead depended on massive coal-fired power facilities and nuclear reactors. In contrast, because of the scarcity of water, dry-cooling designs have grown in favor in the Middle East, China, South Africa, and the United States (at coal mine locations, in desert environs, or for other similar reasons). After 1990, the global market for dry cooling started to boom, and it has more than doubled in the last 13 years.

Given China’s massive electrical needs, the market for dry-cooling equipment is likely to remain busy in the near future. Reasonable growth is also anticipated in Europe, as several European Union nations rekindle their interest in controlling future water resources. In the foreseeable future, the Middle East (Emirate’s region) and India will undoubtedly become two extremely significant markets. Since the middle of 2005, the market in the United States has grown steadily.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/air-cooled-condenser-is/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #5 เมื่อ: กันยายน 27, 2021, 08:29:37 AM »
METROL SEA-CELL Electrochlorinator


Overview – METROL SEA-CELL Electrochlorinator
- Prevent organism growth in your seawater systems with sodium hypochlorate

Our METROL SEA-ELL electrochlorinator is a machine which helps prevent organism growth in seawater systems. Technically, the electrochlorinator generates sodium hypochlorite by using electricity to control biofilm efficiently. Not only large organisms but also small organisms can be aggregated on the equipment. This would reduce performance and increase lifespan of the system. Therefore, if the seawater is applied in any process, the electrochlorinator should be installed to hinder biofoulant.

The METROL SEA-CELL electrochlorinator offers increased run-times and efficient protection of seawater treatment equipment. Offshore uses range from oil and gas stations and ships to floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) facilities, meanwhile onshore uses include industrial and refinery cooling water.

- Flexible, modular design and controls
The SEA-ELL electrochlorinator is designed for standards and specific customer’s requirements. Specially, the electrochlorinator can be used with automated chlorinator packages complete with detailed instrumentation and control features, which provide online availability and fail-safe operation.
Package ranges are also included from single-cell marine units to sophisticated units and hazardous area. Also, there are large-capacity units for power and industrial applications.

- Special Features :
           - Designed to operate at 145psi (10bar), tested to 220 psi [15.2 bar]; has withstood 580 psi [40 bar] during certification trials without leaks
           - Compact design reduces weight and space requirements.
           - Vertical orientation facilitates removal of hydrogen byproduct of the electrolytic process

Application of METROL SEA-CELL Electrochlorinator
The SEA-CELL electrochlorinator applies “Sodium hypochlorite” via electrolysis as an oxidizing biocide for biofoulant protection.
With reliable design and auto-cleaning generator, our METROL SEA-ELL electrochlorinator has an arrangement which encloses the anode-cathode bipolar plates within a leak-proof, integral housing. Compared to other cell designs, they will use the cathode or anode as the containment device for the process fluid. Since the plates are mounted inside a substantial polypropylene container, the SEA-CELL electrochlorinator can ensure leak-free operation even during anode-cathode failure. The design is guaranteed by ATEX certified and ingress protection (IP) 65 rated. Therefore, there is no need for an additional enclosure, and help installation in harsh marine environments.

Due to self-cleaning function, our METROL SEA-CELL electrochlorinator doesn’t need to clean any acid. Instead, the cell plates are kept free of deposits and hydrogen is removed by optimizing fluid velocities.

During the process, the hypochlorite solution is in the tank under level control. After that, it will be pumped to the dosing point where the solution is released to the seawater system by multistage centrifugal dosing pumps.

Hypochlorite generation process
The hypochlorite generation process is involved with electrolysis of the sodium chloride in raw seawater. The solution flows between anodic and cathodic electrodes energized by the direct current. Then, the chemical reactions happen between the products of electrolysis.

Passing direct current through an aqueous solution of sodium chloride causes the chloride ions to migrate to the anode and sodium ions to migrate to the cathode, leading to the generation of chlorine at the anode and hydrogen plus sodium hydroxide at the cathode.

Hydroxyl ions migrate from the cathode area and react with sodium ions and chlorine dissolved in the seawater near the anode to produce sodium hypochlorite


Project Reference


https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/metrol-sea-cell-electrochlorinator/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #6 เมื่อ: กันยายน 27, 2021, 09:12:56 AM »
Sulfate Removal System – Effective treatment of seawater for injection

Increased technological and environmental demands are being placed on the oil and gas industry to find cost-effective methods to control scale formation apparent as a result of waterflood.

Overview – Sulfate Removal System
Prevent reservoir damage from sulfate introduction

There are two main problems that the sulfate removal system can solve. One is scale control and the other one is souring control. When sulfates run into the reservoir, the scale will be precipitated. After that, it will react with barium and strontium salts which are already in the formation.

Removing sulfate can reduce feed for existing sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation. Hydrogen sulfide is the byproduct of bacteria’ s consumption.To avoid damaging operation and corrosion, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) should be removed because it will decrease lifespan of the equipment.

Incorporate sulfate removal into a seawater process

After spending many years for deep understanding and experience of design and installation ,sulfate removal system has advantages beyond scales or hydrogen sulfide reduction.The removal system can be used with other technologies that we provide, such as the Polymem UF seawater ultrafiltration system. The entire process guarantee is also available rather than a guarantee for individual technologies.

ADVANTAGES
        - High-quality injection water
        - Avoidance of well workover
        - Reduced HSE hazards
        - Reduced need for biocides
        - Reduced scaling in piping and equipment
        - More effective squeeze treatments
        - Control of bacterial well souring
        - Lower operating costs
        - Increased productivity

Application of Sulfate Removal System
To help solve problems from the source, sulfate removal technology is one of the advanced technologies to enable productivity and lower costs. Before injection, removing sulfate can decrease barium and strontium sulfate scaling and prevent reservoir souring.

Since intending to solve problems sustainably, Schlumberger enhances membrane separation solutions for sulfate removal. Schlumberger develops not only stand-alone but also turnkey systems for any customer’s requirements. Therefore, these solutions provide efficient technologies for
       - vertical production wells
       - gravel-pack wells
       - dilution water in HPHT environments
       - horizontal wells with subsea tiebacks
       - floating production systems
       - reservoir souring control.

One of sulfate reduction methods is Membrane separation. Plus, this method is very environmentally friendly. The low-sulfate seawater product is normally in the range of 40 mg/L and dependent on water temperature and other operating parameters.  The percentage of product from feedwater is 75%.


Project Reference
 


https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/sulfate-removal-system-effective-treatment-of-seawater-for-injection/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #7 เมื่อ: กันยายน 28, 2021, 09:51:14 AM »
NATCO ELECTRO-DYNAMIC DESALTER


The NATCO ELECTRO-YNAMIC DESALTER electrostatic desalting technology provides multiple phases of electrostatic mixing, coalescing, and settling in a single vessel, delivering nearly 100% salt and dehydration efficiency. The technology provides two-staged desalting efficiency without the excessive capital investments or space requirements common to conventional systems.

Comprising five proven Schlumberger process technologies, the NATCO ELECTRO-DYNAMIC DESALTER technology provides the refining industry with one of the first electrostatic desalting innovations in more than a decade.

Overview – NATCO ELECTRO-DYNAMIC DESALTER
Increase operating efficiency while reducing operational expenses
        - Under a variety of conditions, the NATCO ELECTRO-DYNAMIC DESALTER technology can
        - Retrofit your single-stage system to two-stage performance
        - Increase the levels of salt removal over any other single-vessel process
        - Double the salt removal capacity of two-stage systems
        - Reduce initial capital costs for new installations
        - Allow higher inlet water cuts during upset conditions while maintaining specified effluent requirements
        - Improve effluent water quality
        - Improve operational flexibility by handling a wide range of feedstocks
        - Decrease chemical consumption
        - Improve mixing efficiency
        - Reduce washwater requirements
        - Require less space
        - Provie improved dehydration capabilities.

Application of NATCO ELECTRO-DYNAMIC DESALTER
Five steps to successful desalting
        1. NATCO DUAL POLARITY electrostatic treater—applies a high-gradient, sustained DC field between pairs of electrodes while maintaining an AC field between the electrodes and oil/water interface
             - Results: significant improvements compared with AC dehydration
        2. Composite electrodes—obtains a progressive electrical field
             - Results: coalescence of the smallest of water droplets while eliminating sustained arcing due to highly conductive emulsions


        3. LRC-II smart interface—regulates the flow of electrical current and provides self-adjusting electrical power levels for optimized electrostatic coalescence
             - Results: optimal salt removal over a wide range of feed stock materials
        4. Countercurrent dilution water process—increases contact between dilution water, produced water, and particulate
             - Results: improved crude desalting using less washwater
        5. Electrodynamic mixing process—provides multistage contact
             - Results: near-100% mixing efficiencies while enabling reduced demulsifier chemical consumption
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/natco-electro-dynamic-desalter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #8 เมื่อ: กันยายน 28, 2021, 11:05:55 AM »
NATCO DUAL POLARITY Electrostatic treater

The NATCO DUAL POLARITY Electrostatic treater employs AC and DC fields and incorporates a power units that have become an industry standard for reliability.

Overview – NATCO DUAL POLARITY Electrostatic treater
- More efficient dehydration and desalting at lower operating temperatures

The NATCO DUAL POLARITY electrostatic treater outperforms both mechanical and AC electrostatic treaters in upstream crude oil dehydration and desalting applications and as a first-step desalter in refining operations.

Using both AC and DC fields from a power unit that has become the benchmark for reliability in the industry, the NATCO DUAL POLARITY treater more efficiently coalesces water droplets, enabling it to run at higher throughputs than conventional electrostatic treaters. Other internal components, such as composite electrodes that resist solids loading and a high-flow distributor that improves vessel hydraulics, also support increased throughput while reducing maintenance and opex.

- Improved performance
NATCO LRC-II smart interface, an optional load-responsive controller, enhances emulsion resolution via voltage modulation. This enables you to operate at the optimal voltage for a variety of crude feedstocks while managing upsets more rapidly and effectively.

- Cost-effective treatment
The NATCO DUAL POLARITY treater handles a wider range of inlet water cut and provides higher treating capacities at lower operating temperatures, reducing capex and opex. The treater requires less washwater than an AC desalter because of improved mixing from electrophoretic movement of the water droplets in the electrostatic field. The treater can be delivered as a heater treater, providing heating and dehydration in a single vessel and eliminating the need for externally heated heat transfer fluid.

- Using AC and DC fields for more effective removal of formation water from crude oil
The NATCO DUAL POLARITY treater uses the extremely efficient HiFlo spreader to evenly distribute the incoming wet crude and create a uniform vertical flow upward through the treater. This method eliminates grid bypass and local recirculation areas.

The bulk water and larger water drops are coalesced and separated by gravity in the weaker AC field that exists between the grounded water phase and the electrodes. The stronger DC field between the electrodes causes rapid movement of the remaining small water droplets through electrophoretic attraction, causing the water droplets to collide, coalesce, and settle by gravity.

In desalter applications, washwater is added upstream of the mixing valve in the treater’s inlet piping. Together with the electrophoretic movement of the water droplets, this provides a very high degree of mixing with the brine. Superior mixing and improved dehydration make the NATCO DUAL POLARITY treater much more effective than AC desalters of similar size.

Application of NATCO DUAL POLARITY Electrostatic treater
The treater’s dual-olarity design enables it to split the voltage with rectifiers into positive and negative components. Pairs of vertical electrodes are charged in opposition. The oil-water emulsion from the distributor enters the DC field between electrodes, and the water droplets will accept the polarity of the closest electrode. Once the emulsified water droplets approach an electrode plate, they accept the charge of that plate. The water droplets are moved by electrophoretic force toward the electrode of opposite polarity, causing head-on collisions and coalescence. When the droplets are large enough, gravity will overcome the DC field, and the droplets will separate by gravity into the water phase.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/natco-dual-polarity-electrostatic-treater/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #9 เมื่อ: กันยายน 30, 2021, 03:51:58 AM »
NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY Electrostatic treater


The patented NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY electrostatic treater uses a proprietary process controller,NATCO LRC-lI smart interface,and three-phase power unit to produce a customized electrostatic field that can be readily optimixed for any crude oil.The technology provides a nearly 100% process improvement compared with conventional electrostatic technology

Overview – NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY Electrostatic treater
- Dehydrate and desalt upstream crude oil processes

The NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY electrostatic treater uses both AC and DC power to provide significant process improvement, often more than 100%, over conventional AC electrostatic technologies. It uses our proprietary load-responsive controller—the NATCO LRC-II smart interface—and a three-phase high-requency power unit to generate a customized electrostatic field that can be optimized for any crude oil.

The treater can be delivered as a heater treater, providing heating and dehydration in a single vessel and eliminating the need for an externally heated heat transfer fluid. It can also be provided as a degassing treater, eliminating the need for a separate degasser.

- Treat cost effectively
The NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY treater reduces capex and opex through its higher treatment capacity, higher tolerance to wet crudes, and increased dehydration performance. Moreover, it allows reduced demulsifier dosage, less washwater usage, and a lower operating temperature.

- Improve performance with real-time control

The LRC-lI interface improves emulsion resolution via voltage modulation, enabling operation at the optimal voltage for multiple crude feedstocks, while managing upsets more rapidly and effectively. Parameter setup in the treater power unit can be updated from the LRC-II interface in real time while the unit is operating.

The HiFlo spreader improves vessel hydraulics and enhances performance to support higher process capacity.

- A two-pronged approach to remove formation water from crude oil
The NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY treater uses the extremely efficient HiFlo spreader to evenly distribute the incoming wet crude and create a uniform vertical flow upward through the treater. This method eliminates grid bypass and local recirculation areas.

The bulk water and larger water drops are coalesced and separated by gravity in the weaker AC field that exists between the grounded water phase and the electrodes. The stronger DC field between the electrodes causes rapid movement of the remaining small water droplets through electrophoretic attraction, causing the water droplets to collide, coalesce, grow, and separate by gravity.


In desalter applications, washwater is added upstream of the mixing valve in the treater’s inlet piping. Together with the electrophoretic movement of the water droplets, this provides a very high degree of mixing with the brine. Superior mixing and improved dehydration make the NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY treater much more effective than conventional AC desalters of similar size.

Use of a high base frequency for the electrostatic field provides stronger electrostatic forces. Low-frequency amplitude modulation of the field improves conditions for water droplet coalescence, further enhancing dehydration and desalting efficiency.

We also retrofit existing AC treaters to improve their capacity and enable lower operating temperatures and emulsifier dosages.

- Boost your electrostatic treater
A high-efficiency power unit upgrades NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY units to improve facility opex by increasing treater reliability and simplifying maintenance.

With the new unit installed,
       - treaters operate at higher temperatures and with wider power variations.
       - new sensors monitor trends in the health of key components, enabling warnings before as well as during an upset condition.
       - unit maintenance can be performed without removing it or draining the oil.
       - an AgoraGateway ruggedized edge computing device enables optional remote, real-time health monitoring and life-of-asset collaboration.

Application of NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY Electrostatic treater
Three primary components are packaged in a single oil-filled enclosure. First is the power electronics, designed to produce a variable amplitude and variable frequency voltage field. For many field installations, this is a key feature of the technology, as it enables an optimization of the applied voltage. Second, the medium-frequency power unit provides for the increased secondary voltage known to promote effective coalescence. Third, the secondary voltage is rectified to produce electrophoretic movements of the water droplets, which improves both dehydration and desalting. A DC field is created between the electrodes, enabling droplet motion and efficient coalescence. Simultaneously, an AC field is created between the electrodes and the grounded water phase, enabling bulk water removal in the weaker AC field.

Traditional AC technologies typically experience rapid voltage decay or arcing when operated in very wet crude oil service. This decay reduces the effectiveness of the dehydration process by reducing the voltage lower than what is required for effective dehydration.

By applying a higher-frequency electrostatic field, the treater reduces this voltage decay and enables effective dehydration, thus overcoming the voltage decay experienced with conventional 50/60-Hz transformers. The specific oil and water properties, operating temperature, and formation solids all combine to create a unique emulsion that often can be very difficult to resolve. To break the emulsion, the patented NATCO DUAL FREQUENCY treater uses a microprocessor-based system that includes the LRC-II smart interface and defines the pattern and amplitude of the voltages that are applied to the electrodes. The proprietary LRC-II smart interface enables selection of the shape and amplitude of the voltage waveform to optimize coalescence of the water droplets, leading to an effective resolution of the emulsion and low water content in the treated crude.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/natco-dual-frequency-electrostatic-treater/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #10 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 01, 2021, 08:07:37 AM »
Advanced Media Polisher/ Oil-in-water polishing filters


The advanced media polisher oil-free water technology instantly and permanentsly removes or reduces oil ,suspended solids and highly emulsified oils from water. Built on this technology, the advanced Oil-in-water polishing filters provide enhanced stand-by protection against upset conditions and underperformance of conventional trearment equipment upstream for polisher. THe filter technology is a simple cartridge filtration system with a patented thin film polymer deposited on filter fibers that is a surfacd specific for hydrocarbons.

Overview – Advanced Media Polisher/ Oil-in-water polishing filters
- Achieve discharge levels under 1 ppm, even at high flow rates

Our advanced media polishers or Oil-in-water polishing filters provide enhanced standby protection against upset conditions and underperformance of conventional upstream treatment equipment. The polisher filter consists of a simple cartridge filtration system with a patented thin-film polymer, surface-specific for hydrocarbons, deposited on filter fibers.

These filters provide a higher flow capacity and smaller footprint than conventional tertiary treatment technology. They are used at many sites across the oil and gas industry for final treatment of water before discharge to offshore, nearshore, or inland bodies of water.

- Selective polishing compatible with CEOR that still treats droplets down to <1 um
The advanced media polisher also removes oil in the presences of water-soluble polymers used in chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) while still treating down to a droplet size that ensures no hydrocarbon sheen from the overboard discharge of produced water.

- Special features:
        - Removes free, dispersed, and emulsified oil down to <1-um droplet size
        - Occupies a small footprint in comparison with conventional technologies
        - Treats emulsions without the use of chemicals

Application of  Advanced Media Polisher/ Oil-in-water polishing filters
Instant polishing with thin-film coated media filtration
The polishing media removes oil and grease without desorption and with minimal to no saturation with water. Advanced media polishing filters are normally used to target oil droplets smaller than upstream equipment can handle (typically less than 10 um in diameter) with high efficiency.

Water passes through a standard series of three skid-mounted vessels housing consumable cartridge filters. Sized according to desired flow rate, each vessel can hold up to 210 filters that are 40 in long and have a diameter of 2.5 in. As the process stream passes through each vessel, oil droplets contact the filter surface and are instantly and permanently removed from the stream.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/oil-in-water-polishing-filters/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #11 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 01, 2021, 01:35:49 PM »
Advanced Regenerative Water Treatment Media


Advanced Regenerative Water Treatment Media instantly and permanently removes oil, suspended solids,and highly emulsified oils from water. Built on this technology, the advanced media is a proprietary back-washable system used in oily wastewater streams and produced and process water.Coated with proprietary technology patented polymer,the regenerative media provides an economically sustainably treatment for the removal of oils and suspended solids.

Overview – Advanced Regenerative Water Treatment Media
- 95% single-pass efficiency without chemicals

Advanced regenerative water treatment media is a proprietary, backwashable media used for produced water, oily wastewater streams, and process water. Coated with a patented polymer, the media economically removes oils and suspended solids down to 5 um with 95% single-pass effectiveness and without the use of chemicals.

This media can function as a primary or secondary treatment option for oil and solids removal. Influent water quality, discharge requirements, and the end use of the treated water dictate the treatment system design.

- Process and cost savings
For chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) applications, polymer- and chemical-laden water that has been treated with regenerative water treatment media can be recycled for reuse in the injection field and, in the case of polymer, with no viscosity loss across the system. Little if any of the the water-soluble enhanced oil recovery (EOR) products are caught while the media removes oils and solids. In thermal EOR, trapping the oil and solids before sending the produced water to a softener generates process and cost savings.

- Special features:
        - Removes oil, solids, and oil-coated solids down to 5 um in a single step, without additional chemicals for water separation
        - Treats CEOR produced water from polymer and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) floods without absorbing the polymer
        - Has a long life cycle and low operating cost
        - Prevents process upsets and excursions with minimal impact on performance

Application of Advanced Regenerative Water Treatment Media
Simple backwashing process

Advanced regenerative water treatment media is used in conventional deep-bedded media filter vessels and the oil it traps is recovered through typical backwash techniques. The backwash removes contaminants by reversing the flow direction and fluidizing the packed bed, loosening the media and releasing both solids and oil droplets from the media.

When the proprietary regenerative water treatment media is backwashed, the effluent is typically captured in a static separation vessel. Free oil and solids are easily decanted from the surface for disposal or recovery. The remaining supernatant is used to backwash the filters during the next backwash cycle. Backwash is either manual or automatic depending on the system deployed.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/advanced-regenerative-water-treatment-media/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #12 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 04, 2021, 01:59:58 AM »
CYNARA Acid Gas Removal Membrane Systems


From the world’s first commercial CO2 membrane plant for CO2 recovery in EOR appplications to the world’s largest CO2 membrane plant for natural gas cleanup. Schlumberger continues to lead the industry with state-of-the-art CYNARA acid gas removal membrane systems

Overview – CYNARA Acid Gas Removal Membrane Systems

- CO2 and H2S removal with field-proven 99% operational uptime
CYNARA acid gas removal membrane systems efficiently and selectively permeate acid gases to separate them from produced gas streams that contain 5- to 95-mol% acid gas.

These systems are ideal for stand-alone bulk acid gas removal and the treatment of produced gas to meet pipeline transmission and natural gas heating specifications. They can provide permeate streams of more than 95% pure CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) injection applications. Used in a hybrid acid gas treatment train, they provide bulk separation of produced gas streams that are subsequently treated by an amine system or other separation technologies.

- Compact design eliminates liquid chemicals and improves logistics
The compact footprint of the membrane systems and their largely self-contained functionality make them well suited for offshore applications. There are no moving parts or chemical requirements because the systems work on the principle of diffusion and solubility-based separation.

In addition to eliminating the weight of liquid chemicals and the need for liquid recirculation equipment and associated maintenance, CYNARA systems eliminate the logistics associated with the transportation and storage of liquid amine chemicals onshore and offshore. The need to superheat gas streams containing >40% CO2 and related costs are also minimized because the membranes can efficiently handle condensing hydrocarbons.

- Options to optimize performance for different acid gas concentrations
Three membrane-based acid gas removal options are available.
            – CYNARA CLASSIC high-concentration acid gas removal membrane removes the highest levels of acid gas from produced gas streams.
            – CYNARA PN-1 dual-zoned acid gas removal membrane permeates the highest concentrations of inlet acid gas in Zone 1, directing lower concentrations of acid gas into Zone 2, and optimizing the treatment of produced gas streams with irregular levels of CO2 and H2S.]
            – CYNARA SEMPLE high-pressure, low-concentration acid gas removal membrane system is designed to treat high-pressure produced gas streams that have acid gas concentrations of less than 30%. This standardized, preengineered plug-and-play assembly, with its single-ended membrane configuration, enables smaller vessel housings with greater membrane surface area, lower equipment weight, and more compact skid size.

Application of CYNARA Acid Gas Removal Membrane Systems
Hollow-fiber membrane maximizes acid gas separation


CYNARA systems use tubular membrane elements that consist of a central steel tube surrounded by a sheet of asymmetric, hollow fibers made from cellulose triacetate polymer. Millions of these hollow fibers are combined to make a single element, which is housed in a case.

As the inlet natural gas stream is drawn through the membrane, small molecules such as CO2 and H2S in the gas stream permeate into the fibers much faster than the larger, more complex natural gas components (e.g., methane and higher hydrocarbons). The smaller molecules flow around the fibers into the central core. A low-pressure CO2-rich stream flows through the tube sheets and exits the element at both ends. The high-pressure natural gas product stream, with the bulk of the acid gas removed, exits through the core steel tube.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/cynara-acid-gas-removal-membrane-system/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #13 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 04, 2021, 02:26:47 PM »
Early Production Systems


Accelerate the time to first oil and gas
Begin production early while full field development is being planned and permanent facilities are being built. Early-production systems help operators bring their new discoveries onstream fast. Schlumberger has designed and installed modular, fit-for-purpose systems worldwide for more than 30 years and to date has completed approximately 70 projects.

Early production systems and fast-track schedules can create an early cash flow for operators with only a minimum cash outlay. They also provide real-time production data for appraising reservoir performance before more-expensive long-term facilities are installed. In addition, early production systems are ideal for small reserves that would be financially risky or uneconomical to produce with a permanent production facility.

Production services
An extensive range of production services is available, based on the early production system business model selected:
      - Fast-track early production and interim plants and systems
      - Hydrocarbon liquids recovery and dewpoint control plants
      - Gas storage leaching facilities
      - CO2 and H2S removal
      - Multiphase pumping
      - Optimization of existing production facilities *All necessary support systems (power generation, controls, monitoring and detection, and operation camps)

Flexible business models
Schlumberger offers a variety of commercial business models for early production systems that afford customers the flexibility to maximize their return on investment:
      - Build—Own—Operate (equipment rental plus operation)
      - Build—Own—Operate—Transfer (equipment rental plus operation with the option to purchase)'
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/early-production-systems/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #14 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 05, 2021, 01:51:29 PM »
MYCELX Polisher Oil-In-Water Polishing Filter


MYCELX Polisher oil-in-water polishing filters provide enhanced standby protection against upset conditions and underperformance of conventional upstream treatment equipment.

Achieve oil-in-water discharge levels <1 ppm even at high flow rates
MYCELX Polisher oil-in-water polishing filters provide enhanced standby protection against upset conditions and underperformance of conventional upstream treatment equipment. The MYCELX Polisher filter technology consists of a simple cartridge filtration system with a patented thin film polymer deposited on filter fibers; the polymer is surface specific for hydrocarbons.

These filters provide a higher flow capacity and smaller footprint than conventional tertiary treatment technology. They are used on many sites across the oil and gas industry for final treatment of water before discharge to offshore, nearshore, or inland bodies of water.

Advantages
        - Removes free, dispersed, and emulsified oil down to <1-um droplet size
        - Occupies a small footprint in comparison with conventional technologies
        - Treats emulsions without the use of chemicals
        - Ensures no hydrocarbon sheen for overboard discharge of produced water
        - Removes oil in the presence of water-soluble polymers used in chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR)
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/mycelx-polisher-oil-in-water-polishing-filter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #15 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 05, 2021, 03:14:43 PM »
Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches


Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches offer the industrial user a wide choice of alarm and control configurations. Every unit utilizes a simple buoyancy principle and is well suited for simple or complex applications, such as foaming or surging liquids or agitated fluids, and usually costs less than other types of level switches.

Technology of Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches
Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches are based upon simple buoyancy, whereby a spring is loaded with weighted displacers which are heavier than the liquid. Immersion of the displacers in the liquid results in buoyancy force change, which moves the spring upward. Since the spring moves only when the level moves on a displacer, spring movement  is always a small fractionof the level travel between displacers. A magnetic sleeve is connected to the spring and operates within a non-magnetic barrier tube. Springmovement causes the magnetic sleeve to attract a pivoted magnet ƒ, actuating a switch mechanism ≈ located outside the barrier tube. Built-in limit stops prevent over stroking of the spring, under level surge conditions.

Features of Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches
       - Narrow or wide level ranges achieved through multiple switch mechanism capability.
       - Up to 4 set points and 3 switches.
       - Displacers adjustable at any point along the suspension cable.
       - 10 feet (3 meters) suspension cable standard.
       -  Anti-surge design eliminates the possibility of switch shortcycling.
       - Flanged or threaded mounting available.
       - Easy installation.
       - Field adjustable set point and switch differential.
       - NACE models.
       - Floating rooftop models.
       - Proof-er® ground check.
       - Choice of displacers: Porcelain, 316 Stainless steel, Karbate, Brass.
       - Choice of switch mechanisms: Dry contact,Pneumatic, Hermetically sealed.
       - Available housings: NEMA 1, carbon steel for pneumatics; TYPE 4X/7/9, Class I, Div. 1, Groups C & D, polymer coated aluminum; TYPE 4X/7/9,Class I, Div. 1, Group B, polymer coated aluminum.

Applications of Displacer Type Liquid Level Switches
       - Foaming or surging liquids
       - Agitated fluids
       - Sewage handling
       - Dirty liquids
       - Paints
       - Varnishes
       - Heavy oils
       - Liquids with solids
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/displacer-type-liquid-level-switches/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #16 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 06, 2021, 11:57:33 AM »
Pneumatic Modulevel Liquid level control


Pneumatic Modulevel® Liquid level controls are displacement actuatedlevel sensors. They provide output signals in direct proportion to changes in liquid level.Simple, modular design and proven magnetic coupling make Modulevel controls versatile, highly stable, vibration resistant and adaptable to extremes of temperature and pressure.

Principle OF Pneumatic Modulevel Liquid level control
The key elements of the Pneumatic Modulevel Liquid level control are the magnetic coupling, which allows the controller to be mechanically isolated from the sealed  sensing unit; the range spring, which dampens the action of the displacer, and the control head, which provides a modulated pneumatic signal in direct proportion to the input from the vertical motion of the displacer.As the liquid level in the vessel increases or decreases, the buoyant displacer rises or falls.This motion, dampened by the action of the range spring to prevent response to the rapid fluctuations of turbulence, is mechanically coupled to an attractor ball, within an enclosed tube. A magnet encircling the tube follows the attractor ball, transferring the motion to a rotating cam,which in turn operates a flapper against a nozzle which increases or decreases the pressure within the pneumatic relay. The output pressure signal can be used in a variety of ways to operate a control valve or signal to alarms, indicators, process controls or other devices. With optional integral control, the pilot nozzle proportional signal is conditioned through an additional metering valve system, which will eliminate offset from the desired control point.


Features of Pneumatic Modulevel Liquid level control
       - Standard models handle service temperatures from -100°C to +370°C (-150°F to +700°F) and pressure to 294 bar (4265 PSIG).
       - Stable output signal is unaffected by surface turbulence.Prevents control valve “hunting” and extends valve life.
       - Controller head may be removed and bench calibrated without dismantling or even depressurizing the tank.
       - Accurate output signal provided over a wide specific gravity range.
       - 316 SS displacer and trim.
       - Easily field calibrated without moving tank liquid level, for reduced installation time and cost.
       - Controller head rotates 360°, simplifies pneumatic piping hookup.
       - Pilot relay provides a 4 to 1 amplification of pilot pressure signal to speed valve response.
       - Built-in visual level indicator is independent of air supply.
       - Optional pneumatic to current interface transducer for use in electronic control applications.
       - Optional proportional plus integral control.
       - Optional differential gap (on-off) control.
       - Optional Hi-Lo electronic alarm signal provides inexpensive backup alarm.

Applications of Pneumatic Modulevel Liquid level control
Pneumatic Modulevel® liquid level controls are widely used in utility power generation, chemical and petroleum processing operations, such as:
       - Steam generator feedwater
       - heater regulation
       - Fractionating column level transmitter
       - Ethanolamine level transmitter
       - Vent gas scrubber level control
       - Drip pot condensate level control
       - Flash tank level transmitter
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/pneumatic-modulevel-liquid-level-control/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #17 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 08, 2021, 02:37:27 AM »
Boiler and Water Column Liquid Level Switch


C24, C25, Boiler and Water Column Liquid Level Switch are single or multi-switch units that offer versatility and reliable operation in a variety of applications. Available with up to three switch mechanisms for levelalarm, control, and shutdown functions, the boiler and water column controls are designed for use in steam boiler applications while the Models C24 & C25 are forgeneral industrial use.

Technology of Boiler and Water Column Liquid Level Switch
Boiler and Water Column Liquid Level Switch uses a long-lasting magnet. A permanent magnet➀is attached to a pivoted switch actuator and adjustment screw ➁. As the float ➂ rises following the liquid level, it raises the attraction sleeve ➃ into the field of the magnet,which then snaps against the non-magnetic enclosing tube ➄, actuating the switch ≈. The enclosing tube provides a static pressure boundary between the switch mechanism and the process.On a falling level, an inconel spring retracts the magnet, deactivating the switch.


Features of Boiler and Water Column Liquid Level Switch
       - Easy inspection of float chamber through removable head
       - Cast iron or fabricated steel float chambers
       - 316 and 316L stainless steel floats
       - Brass chamber liner standard in B24, B25 and W25 models
       - Right or left hand water column mounting
       - Try cock tappings and sight glass tappings available
       - Process temperatures up to +1000° F (+538° C)
       - Multiple switch capability
       - Working steam pressure to 600 pounds
       - Choice of switch mechanisms: Pneumatic Hermetically sealed Dry contact
       - Choice of switch mechanism enclosures: NEMA 1 carbon steel for pneumatic TYPE 4X/7/9 Class I, Div. 1, Groups C & D, polymer coated aluminum TYPE 4X/7/9 Class I, Div. 1, Group B, polymer coated aluminum
       - Optional high temperature insulation available.  See bulletin 41-106.

Application of Boiler and Water Column Liquid Level Switch
       - OCondensate receiver control
       - OFlash tank high level alarm
       - OWater tube boiler low water cutoff
       - OBoiler steam chest high level alarm
       - OBoiler feedwater pump control
       - ODay tanks
       - OBoiler low water cutoff
       - OHolding tanks
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/boiler-and-water-column-liquid-level-switch/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #18 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 08, 2021, 04:03:56 AM »
Echotel Model 910 Ultrasonic Level Switch

Echotel Model 910 Level Switches utilize ultrasonic contact technology for measuring level in clean liquid applications. The dual conduit electronics houses an 8-amp DPDT gold flash relay that is field selectable for high or low level fail-safe applications. There are no moving parts that come in contact with the medium. The Echotel Model 910 is an integrally mounted system, comprised of surface mount electronics and a 316 stainless steel transducer.  Hazardous area location approvals are available from FM, CSA, and ATEX.

Technology of Echotel Model 910 Ultrasonic Level Switch
The Model 910 Level Switch uses ultrasonic energy to detect the presence or absence of liquid in a 316 stainless steel tip sensitive transducer gap. The basic principle behind ultrasonic contact technology is that high-frequency sound waves are easily transmitted across a transducer gap in the presence of a liquid medium, but are severely attenuated when the gap is dry. The Model 910 uses an ultrasonic frequency of 3 MHz to perform this liquid level measurement in a wide variety of process media and application conditions. The transducer uses a pair of piezoelectric crystals that are encapsulated in epoxy at the tip of the transducer. The crystals are made of a ceramic material, such as lead zirconate. The transmit crystal converts an electrical signal from the Model 910 electronics into an ultrasonic signal. When liquid is present in the gap, the receive crystal is able to sense the ultrasonic signal from the transmit crystal and convert it back to an electrical signal. This signal is sent to the electronics to indicate the presence of liquid in the transducer gap. When there is no liquid present, the ultrasonic signal is attenuated, and the receive crystal is not able to sense the sound waves from the transmit crystal.

Features of Echotel Model 910 Ultrasonic Level Switch
        - Measures level within 0.25″ (6 mm) from the end of the tip-sensitive transducer gap
        - 8-amp DPDT gold flash or 5-amp DPDT hermetically sealed relay
        - Surface mount conformal coated electronics
        - FM, CSA, and ATEX approved for hazardous locations
        - Variety of mounting options including NPT and BSP threaded, flanges and hygienic connections
        - No calibration required
        - 316 stainless steel transducer
        - Mounted horizontally or vertically
        - Compact dual conduit cast aluminum electronics housing
        - Two-year product warranty

Applications of  Echotel Model 910 Ultrasonic Level Switch
        - Seal Pot Level
        - Low Level Alarm
        - High Level Alarm
        - OEM/Skid Packages
        - Pump Protection
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/echotel-model-910-ultrasonic-level-switch/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #19 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 10, 2021, 02:09:05 AM »
Echotel Model 940/941 Ultrasonic Level Switch


Echotel Model 940/941 Ultrasonic Level Switch is compact integral units that utilize pulsed signal technology to perform high or low level measurement in a wide variety of liquid applications. These switches feature a 316 stainless steel tip-sensitive transducer that is offered in a variety of NPT, flanged, and hygienic process connections. The compact electronics are completely encapsulated just above the process fitting.The Magnetrol® Model 940 offers a 1-amp SPDT relay output. The Model 941 has a mA current shift output.

Technology of Echotel Model 940/941 Ultrasonic Level Switch
Ultrasonic energy detects the presence or absence of liquid in a tip sensitive transducer gap. The principle behind contact ultrasonic technology is that high frequency sound waves are easily transmitted across a transducer gap in the presence of liquid, but are attenuated when the gap is dry.The transducer uses a pair of piezoelectric crystals that are encapsulated in epoxy at the tip of the transducer. The crystals are made of a ceramic material that vibrates at a given frequency when subjected to an applied voltage. The transmit crystal converts the applied voltage from the electronics into an ultrasonic signal. When liquid is present in the gap, the receive crystal is able to sense the ultrasonic signal from the transmit crystal and convert it back to an electrical signal. This signal is sent to the electronics to indicate the presence of liquid in the transducer gap. When there is no liquid present, the ultrasonic signal is attenuated and is not detected by the receive crystal.


Features of Echotel Model 940/941 Ultrasonic Level Switch
       - Pulsed electronics for excellent performance in difficult process conditions and superior immunity from sources of electromagnetic noise
       - Tip-sensitive transducer gap provides reliable operation by draining viscous liquids and shedding foam in turbulent applications
       - Safety Integrity Level (SIL) data (FMEDA analysis) is available. Model 940 is suitable for SIL 2 loops.Model 941 is suitable for SIL 1 loops.
       - Extremely compact unit is easily installed in areaswhere access space is limited
       - 1-amp SPDT relay output (940), or mA current shift (941) output
       - No calibration required


Applications of Echotel Model 940/941 Ultrasonic Level Switch
The Model 940/941 can be applied in a wide variety of high or low liquid level applications, pump protection,and fill line monitoring as shown in the diagram at the left. These compact units can also be installed in the interstitial space between two tank walls for fluid leak detection.Small size and simplicity of installation make these units ideal for OEM skids as a low cost, yet high performance level measurement solution. They are also the perfect replacement for older floats, conductivity switches, and tuning forks.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/echotel-model-940-941-ultrasonic-level-switch/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #20 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 10, 2021, 05:22:02 AM »
Echotel Model 335 Non-Contact Ultrasonic Transmitter

Echotel Model 335 is a high performance, non-contact ultrasonic transmitter for liquid level, volume, and open channel flow measurement. The extremely powerful and flexible software incorporated in the Echotel 335 results in virtually unsurpassed measurement performance. Advanced digital signal processing enables the 335 to perform in applications involving in-tank obstructions, light foam and agitation.

Technology of Echotel Model 335 Non-Contact Ultrasonic Transmitter
Non-contact ultrasonic level technology is a proven method for accurate liquid level measurement. This technology features the ability to measure the level or volume of the fluid without making physical contact withthe material. This is especially important in applications containing corrosive materials, suspended solids or coating media.The level measurement is made by emitting an ultrasonic pulse from the transducer and measuring the time required for the echo to reflect from the liquid surface and return to the transducer. The powerful electronics measure the time of the round trip pulse and, by knowing the speed of sound, calculates the distance. Since speed of sound is temperature dependent, the transducer also measures the temperature in the vessel to provide compensation for changing temperature. By inputting the type and geometry of the vessel, the intelligent electronics can calculate the liquid volume in the vessel. In a similar operation, the Model 335 can perform open channel flow measurement by converting the level reading into units of volume per time. Common tank shapes, flumes, and weirs are stored in the 335 software. A 32-point linearization table is also available for unusual tanks or primary flow elements.


Features of Echotel Model 335 Non-Contact Ultrasonic Transmitter
      - Custom graphics LCD display module with operational status icons.
      - Advanced digital signal processing assures reliable measurement in difficult applications
      - Dual function bar graph displays echo signal strength or tank level
      - 50 kHz transducer with 26 ft (8 meter) range
      - Narrow, 7-degree beam angle for excellent focus
      - 4–20 mA output and SPDT relay for level control, alarm, diagnostics or remote flow totalization
      - Fixed target suppression to eliminate interference from in-tank obstructions
      - Common tank shapes and 32-point linearization table for volume calculations
      - Extensive support of flume and weir calculations for open channel flow
      - Two totalizers for flow, one resettable, and one non-resettable
      - Temperature compensation over full range of transducer

Applications of Echotel Model 335 Non-Contact Ultrasonic Transmitter
      - Sump, well, tank and open channel measurement
      - Water and wastewater treatment facilities
      - General industrial applications
      - Chemical storage tanks
      - Vessels with highly viscous media
      - Paint, ink and solvent tanks
      - Food and beverage vessels
      - Batch and day tanks
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/echotel-model-335-non-contact-ultrasonic-transmitter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #21 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 11, 2021, 12:59:28 PM »
Eclipse Model 706 Wave Radar Level Transmitter


The Eclipse Model 706 Transmitter is loop-powered, 24 VDC level transmitter that is based upon the proven and accepted technology of Guided Wave Radar

Encompassing a number of significant engineering accomplishments, the Eclipse Model 706 Transmitter is designed to provide measurement performance well beyond that of many of the more traditional technologies.

Utilizing patented “diode switching” technology, along with the most comprehensive probe offering on the market, this single transmitter can be used in a wide variety of applications ranging from very light hydrocarbons to water-based media.The innovative angled, dual compartment enclosure is now a common sight in the industry. This enclosure, first brought to the industry by Magnetrol® in 1998, is angled to maximize ease of wiring, configuration, and viewing of the versatile graphic LCD display.

One universal Model 706 transmitter can be used and interchanged with all probe types, and offers enhanced reliability as it is certified for use in critical SIL 2 hardware safety loops. With the use of a unique adapter, the model706 transmitter can even operate with older Model 705 probes.The ECLIPSE Model 706 supports both the FDT/DTM and Enhanced DD (EDDL) standards, which allow viewing of valuable configuration and diagnostic information such as the echo curve in tools such as PACTware ™, AMS Device Manager, and various HART® Field Communicators

Technology of Eclipse Model 706 Wave Radar Level Transmitter
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

ECLIPSE Guided Wave Radar is based upon the technology of TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). TDR utilizes pulses of electromagnetic energy transmitted down a wave guide (probe). When a pulse reaches a surface that has a higher dielectric constant than the air (εr = 1) in which it is traveling, a portion of the pulse is reflected. The transit time of the pulse is then measured via high speed timing circuitry that provides an accurate measure of the liquid (or solids) level. The amplitude of the reflection depends on the dielectric constant of the product. The higher thedielectric constant, the larger is the reflection.


INTERFACE MEASUREMENT
The ECLIPSE Model 706 is capable of measuring both an upper liquid level and an interface liquid level. As only a portion of the pulse is reflected from a low dielectric upper surface, some of the transmitted energy continues down the GWR probe through the upper liquid. The remaining initial pulse is again reflected when it reaches the higher dielectric lower liquid. It is required that the upper liquid has a dielectric constant less than 10, and the lower liquid has a dielectric constant greater than 15. A typical interface application would be oil over water, with the upper layer of oil being non-conductive (εr ≈ 2.0), and the lower layer of water being very conductive (εr ≈ 80). The thickness of the upper layer could be as small as 2″ (50 mm) while the maximum upper layer is limited to the length of the GWR probe.


Features of Eclipse Model 706 Wave Radar Level Transmitter
       - Multivariable, two-wire, 24 VDC loop-powered transmitter for level, interface, volume, or flow.
       - Unique adapter allows operation with Model 705 probes
       - Diode switching technology offers best-in-class signal strength and signal-to noise ratio (SNR) resulting in enhanced capability in difficult low dielectric applications.
       - Level measurement not affected by changing media characteristics.
       - No need to move levels for calibration.
       - Overfill Capable probes allow for “true level” measurement all the way up to the process seal, without the need for special algorithms.
       - 4-button keypad and graphic LCD display allow for convenient viewing of configuration parameters and echo curve.
       - Proactive diagnostics advise not only what is wrong, but also offer troubleshooting tips.
       - Nine common tank shapes for volumetric output.
       - 30-point custom strapping table for uncommonlyshaped tanks.
       - Two standard flumes and four standard weirs of various sizes for flow measurement.
       - Generic flow equation for non-standard channels.
       - 360° rotatable housing can be separated from probe without depressurizing the vessel.
       - Probe designs up to +850 °F/6250 psi (+450 °C/431 bar).
       - Saturated steam applications up to 3000 psi (207 bar),+800 °F (+425 °C) when installed in side-mounted chamber.
       - Cryogenic applications down to -320 °F (-196 °C).
       - Transmitter can be remote-mounted up to 12 feet (3.6 m) away from the probe.
       - SIL certification allows use in SIL 2/3 Loops
       - No moving parts.
       - FOUNDATION fieldbus™, PROFIBUS PA and Modbus digital outputs.
       - Lloyd’s Register steam drum approval

Applications of Eclipse Model 706 Wave Radar Level Transmitter
MEDIA: Liquids, solids, or slurries; hydrocarbons to waterbased media (Dielectric Constant εr = 1.2–100)
VESSELS : Most process or storage vessels up to rated probe temperature and pressure.
CONDITIONS : All level measurement and control applications including process conditions exhibiting visible vapors, foam, surface agitation, bubbling or boiling, high fill/empty rates, low level and varying dielectric media or specific gravity
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/eclipse-model-706-transmitter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #22 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 11, 2021, 01:40:36 PM »
Eclipse Model 705 for industrial applications


The Enhanced Eclipse Model 705 Transmitter is a looppowered, 24 VDC liquid-level transmitter based on the revolutionary of technology on Guided Wave Radar (GWR).

Encompassing a number of significant engineering accomplishments,  Eclipse Model 705 is designed to provide measurement performance well beyond that of many traditional technologies, as well as “through-air” radar.

About Eclipse Model 705, the innovative enclosure is a first in the industry, orienting dual compartments (wiring and electronics) in the same plane, and angled to maximize ease of wiring, configuration, and data display. One universal transmitter can be used with all probe types and offers enhanced reliability for use in SIL 2/SIL 3 hardware systems. ECLIPSE supports the FDT/DTM standard and, with the PACTware™ Frame Program, allows for additional configuration and trending flexibility

Technology of Eclipse Model 705 for industrial applications
OVERALL LEVEL

The Eclipse Model 705 Guided Wave Radar is based upon the technology of TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). TDR utilizes pulses of electromagnetic energy transmitted down a wave guide (probe). When a pulse reaches a liquid surface that has a higher dielectric constant than the air (εr of 1) in which it is traveling,the pulse is reflected. The transit time of the pulse is then measured via ultra speed timing circuitry that provides an accurate measure of the liquid level.


INTERFACE LEVEL
The Eclipse Model 705 is capable of measuring both an upper liquid level and an interface liquid level. Even after the pulse is reflected from the upper surface, some of the energy continues down the GWR probe through the upper liquid. The pulse is again reflected when it reaches the higher dielectric lower liquid. It is required that the upper liquid has a dielectric constant between 1.4 and 5,and the lower liquid has a dielectric constant greater than 15. A typical application would be oil over water, with the upper layer of oil being non-conductive (εr ≈ 2.0),and the lower layer of water being very conductive (εr ≈ 80). The thickness of the upper layer must be > 2″(50 mm). The maximum upper layer is limited to the length of the GWR probe, which is available in lengths up to 40 feet (12 meters).


EMULSION LAYERS
As emulsion (rag) layers can decrease the strength of the reflected signal, the ECLIPSE Model 705 is recommended for applications that have clean, distinct layers. The ECLIPSE Model 705 will tend to detect the top of the emulsion layer. Contact the factory for application assistance regarding emulsion layers.

Features of Eclipse Model 705 for industrial applications
        - “TRUE LEVEL” measurement—not affected by media characteristics (e.g., dielectrics, pressure, density, pH, viscosity, etc.)
        - Two-wire, 24 VDC loop-powered transmitter for level, interface, or volume.
        - 20-point custom strapping table for volumetric output.
        - 360° rotatable housing can be dismantled without depressurizing the vessel.
        - Two-line, 8-character LCD and 3-button keypad.
        - Probe designs: up to +800 °F / 6250 psi (+430 °C / 430 bar).
        - Saturated steam applications up to 2250 psi @+650 °F (155 bar @ +345 °C).
        - Cryogenic applications down to -320 °F (-196 °C).
        - Integral or remote electronics (up to 12 feet (3.6 m)).
        - Certified for use in SIL 2/SIL 3 Loops (full FMEDA report available).

Applications of Eclipse Model 705 for industrial applications
MEDIA : Liquids or slurries; hydrocarbons to water-based media (dielectric 1.4 – 100).
VESSELS : Most process or storage vessels up to rated probe temperature and pressure.
CONDITIONS : All level measurement and control applications including process conditions exhibiting visible vapors, foam, surface agitation, bubbling or boiling, high fill/empty rates, low level and varying dielectric media or specific gravity.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/eclipse-model-705-industrial/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #23 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 12, 2021, 06:20:42 AM »
Eclipse Model 700 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter


The Eclipse Model 700 Transmitter is a loop-powered, 24 VDC level transmitter that is based upon the proven and accepted technology of Guided Wave Radar (GWR).Encompassing a number of significant engineering accomplishments, this leading edge level transmitter is designed to provide measurement performance well beyond that of many of the more traditional technologies.

This single transmitter can be used in a wide variety of applications ranging from very light hydrocarbons to water-based media. One universal Model 700 transmitter can be used and interchanged with several different probe types and offers enhanced reliability as it is certified for use in critical SIL 2/3 hardware safety loops.The ECLIPSE Model 700 supports both the FDT/DTM and Enhanced DD (EDDL) standards, which allow viewing of valuable configuration and diagnostic information such as the echo curve in tools such as PACTware ™, AMS Device Manager, and various HART® Field Communicators.

Technology of Eclipse Model 700 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

ECLIPSE Guided Wave Radar is based upon the technology of TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). TDR utilizes pulses of electromagnetic energy transmitted down a wave guide(probe). When a pulse reaches a surface that has a higher dielectric constant than the air (εr = 1) in which it is traveling, a portion of the pulse is reflected. The transit time of the pulse is then measured via high speed timing circuitry that provides an accurate measure of the liquid (or solids) level. The amplitude of the reflection depends on the dielectric constant of the product. The higher thedielectric constant, the larger is the reflection.


INTERFACE MEASUREMENT
The ECLIPSE Model 700 is capable of measuring both an upper liquid level and an interface liquid level. As only a portion of the pulse is reflected from a low dielectric upper surface, some of the transmitted energy continues down the GWR probe through the upper liquid. The remaining initial pulse is again reflected when it reaches the higher dielectric lower liquid. It is required that the upper liquid has a dielectric constant less than 10, and the lower liquid has a dielectric constant greater than 15. A typical interface application would be oil over water, with the upper layer of oil being non-conductive (εr ≈ 2.0), and the lower layer of water being very conductive (εr ≈ 80). The thickness of the upper layer could be as small as 2″ (50 mm) while the maximum upper layer is limited to the length of the GWR probe.


Features of Eclipse Model 700 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter
        - Multivariable, two-wire, 24 VDC loop-powered transmitter for level, interface, volume, or flow.
        - Level measurement not affected by changing media characteristics.
        - No need to move levels for calibration.
        - Overfill Capable probes allow for “true level” measurement all the way up to the process seal, without the need for special algorithms.
        - 4-button keypad and graphic LCD display allow for convenient viewing of configuration parameters and echo curve.
        - Proactive diagnostics advise not only what is wrong, but also offer troubleshooting tips
        - Nine common tank shapes for volumetric output.
        - 30-point custom strapping table for uncommonlyshaped tanks.
        - Two standard flumes and four standard weirs of various sizes for flow measurement.
        - Generic flow equation for non-standard channels.
        - Probe designs up to +400 °F/6250 psi (+200 °C/431 bar).
        - Cryogenic applications down to -320 °F (-196 °C).
        - SIL certification allows use in SIL 2/3 Loops
        - No moving parts.

Application of Eclipse Model 700 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter
MEDIA : Liquids, solids, or slurries; hydrocarbons to waterbased media (Dielectric Constant εr = 1.2–100)
VESSELS : Most process or storage vessels up to rated probe temperature and pressure.
CONDITIONS : All level measurement and control applications including process conditions exhibiting visible vapors, foam, surface agitation, bubbling or boiling, high fill/empty rates, low level and varying dielectric media or specific gravity.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/eclipse-model-700-guided-wave-radar-level-transmitter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #24 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 12, 2021, 11:25:23 AM »
Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter


Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter is an advanced, intrinsically safe two-wire instrument utilizing simple buoyancy principle to detect and convert liquid level changes into a stable output signal. The linkage between the level sensing element and output electronics provides a simple mechanical design and construction. The vertical in-line design of the transmitter results in low instrument weight and simplified installation. The instrument comes in avariety of configurations and pressure ratings for varied applications.The Digital E3 Modulevel has microprocessor-based electronics with 4–20 mA/HART® or FOUNDATION fieldbus™ output. E3 supports the FDT/DTM standard and a PACTware™ PC software package allows for additional configuration and trending capabilities.

Technology of Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter
Changing buoyancy forces caused by liquid level change act upon the spring supported displacer causing vertical motion of the core within a linear variable differential transformer.As the core position changes with liquid level, voltages are induced across the secondary windings of the Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter.These signals are processed in the electronic circuitry and converted to a useable output signal. The enclosing tube acts as a static isolation barrier between the Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter and the process media.

Features of Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter
        - Two-wire, loop-powered, transmitter for level, interface or density measurement
        - No level change needed for configuration; no field calibration necessary.
        - Safety Integrity Level (SIL) Certified, SFF value of 90.6%
        - 4 –20 mA output signal
        - Two-line, 8-character LCD and 3-button keypad
        - Continuous self-test with 22 mA, 3.6 mA or Hold fault indication fully compliant with NAMUR NE 43
        - Comprehensive diagnostics with faults, warnings & status history
        - HART or FOUNDATION fieldbus digital communications
        - PACTware PC program using HART communication for advanced configuration and troubleshooting (see bulletin 59-101)
        - IS, XP and Non-incendive approvals by FM, CSA, ATEX, IEC
        - Standard output range from 3.8 to 20.5 mA
        - 11 VDC turn on voltage
        - Maximum loop resistance of 620 ohms at 24 VDC
        - Process temperatures to +835 °F (+445 °C) for non-steam applications
        - Level ranges from 14 to 120+ inches (356 to 3048+ mm)
        - Specific gravity as low as 0.23
        - Cast aluminum or stainless steel, TYPE 4X, Cl I Div 1 Groups B, C, D housing
        - Field wiring in isolated junction box
        - Head rotatable through 360°
        - Accepted proven LVDT/range spring technology
        - Range spring suppresses effects of turbulence to produce stable output signal.
        - Flanged top mounting or external cage with side/side or side/bottom connections
        - Special options, materials of construction and custom engineered features available (consult factory).
        - Spring protector standard
        - Signal sampling 15 times per second
        - Non-interacting zero and span
        - Emission and immunity compliance to EN 61326
        - Specific gravity adjustment without stopping process
        - Signal damping adjustment
        - 64-unit multi-drop capability
        - Consult factory for ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3 or NACE construction.

Application of Digital E3 Modulevel Liquid Level Displacer Transmitter
MEDIA: Liquids or slurries, clean or dirty, light hydrocarbons to heavy acids (SG=0.23 to 2.20)
VESSELS: Process & storage, bridles, bypass chambers, interface, sumps & pits up to unit pressure & temperature ratings.
CONDITIONS: Most liquid level measurement and control applications including those with varying dielectric, vapors, turbulence, foam, buildup, bubbling or boiling and high  fill/empty rates. Also, liquid/liquid interface level measurement or density control.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/digital-e3-modulevel-liquid-level-displacer-transmitter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #25 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 13, 2021, 04:05:54 AM »
Advanced Apura Gas Separation Membrane


To meet pipelines tranmission specifications, gas processing operations treat or condition produced gas that contains acid gases. Theses acid gases need to be removed because they lower the heating vale of natural gas and accelerate the corrosion of pipelines and transmission control equipment. Apura Gas Separation Membrane from Fujifilm demontrated excellent CO2 and H2S seperation capabilities and proved to recover more hydrocarbons compared with traditional spiral-wound membranes

Overview – Apura Gas Separation Membrane
No chemical usage and >30% more recovery of saleable hydrocarbons
The Apura gas separation membrane is a durable, spiral-wound, multilayer composite membrane. It is ideally suited to seamlessly replace traditional cellulose acetate (CA) spiral-wound elements for acid gas removal to meet pipeline transmission specifications.
 Apura membranes are designed for use in high-pressure, medium- to low-CO2 applications for bulk and fine removal of contaminants such as water, CO2, and H2S. The smaller ecological footprint—reduced power consumption and zero chemical requirements—provides substantial savings on total cost of ownership and releases fewer emissions compared with amine systems.

Advantages
          - Increases recovery of saleable hydrocarbons by 30% or more compared with traditional CA spiral-wound membranes
          - Extends membrane life up to 40% in water-rich conditions
          - Enables simple plug-and-play replacement of CA spiral-wound membranes
          - Releases fewer emissions than amine systems
          - Eliminates chemical requirements
          - Reduces power requirements

Application of Apura Gas Separation Membrane
Feed gas enters from the side of the spiral-wound Apura membrane, enabling smaller molecules, such as CO2 and H2S, to pass through the multiple layers in a crossflow manner. They then enter the central perforated tube at lower pressure. The high-pressure nonpermeate gasstream, rich in hydrocarbons and depleted of CO2, flows to the next section of membrane modules to repeat this process until the necessary product gas specifications are met. The low-pressure CO2-rich permeate stream is collected in the central perforated tube and routed to the desired location as a wastestream. Apura membranes are available in 8-in and 8.25-in diameters.



https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/apura-gas-seperation-membrane/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #26 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 13, 2021, 10:36:20 AM »
Amine gas treating system with field-proven


Hydrogen sulfide, Carbon dioxide,and other contaminations are often found in natural gas streams. Amine gas treating systems remove these contaminations so that the gas is suitable for transportation and use.

Overview – Amine gas treating systems
Prepare natural gas for commercialization

Custom and standard Amine gas treating systems remove CO2 and H2S, resulting in gas with <2-mol% CO2 and <4-ppm H2S. Efficiently removing CO2, H2S, and mercaptans makes the gas suitable for transportation and use.

The amine plant can be installed as a stand-alone component or as a part of an integrated processing system. We can custom engineer solutions for amine recirculation rates above 700 galUS/min [2.64 m3/min], and we offer five standardized designs for rates below 700 galUS/min. Years of gas sweetening expertise is built into the design and engineering of our standardized gas plants. So you can expect to achieve performance comparable to a custom-designed sweetening plant.

Amine treating advantages
       - Various heat sources (direct-fired, waste heat, hot oil, and steam systems) can be used for the still reboiler.
       - Customized plants can be designed to customer specification while maintaining fast delivery.
       - Our amine systems can meet required CO2 and H2S levels operating with multiple solvent types and recirculation rates.
       - Standard system designs reduce manufacturing and commissioning times.
       - Amine systems are easily combined with other technologies into hybrid systems for many sizes of gas sweetening projects.

Application of Amine gas treating systems
Amine sweetening process as following:

1. Sour gas enters the contactor tower and rises through the descending amine solution.
2. Purified gas flows from the top of the tower.
3. The amine solution, carrying absorbed acid gases, leaves the tower for the heat exchanger or optional flash tank.
4. Rich amine is heated by hot regenerated lean amine in the heat exchanger.
5 Rich amine is further heated in the regeneration still column, by heat supplied from the reboiler.
6. Steam and acid gases separated from the rich amine are condensed and cooled, respectively, in the reflux condenser.
7. Condensed steam is separated in the reflux accumulator and returned to the still. Acid gases may be vented, incinerated, or directed to a sulfur recovery system.
8. Hot regenerated lean amine is cooled in a solvent aerial cooler and circulated to the contactor tower, completing the cycle.
9. A variety of heat sources can be used for the still reboiler—direct fired, waste heat, hot oil, and steam systems.

https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/amine-gas-treating-system-with-field-proven/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #27 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 15, 2021, 03:53:18 AM »
Cyclotech B Series deoiling hydrocyclone


CYCLOTECH B Series deoiling hydrocyclone technologies represent the state of art in produced water treatment technology, a third-generation geometry optimizing the critical balance between oil-removal efficiency and capacity. Leveraging a globally installed based on both onshore and offshore facilities, the technologies ensure that peak separation is achieved in the most cost-effective and space efficient manner.

Overview – Cyclotech B Series Deoiling hydrocyclone
Balancing efficiency and throughput capacity in a reliable, wear-resistant separation solution


Deoiling hydrocyclone technologies represent the state of the art in produced water treatment, optimizing the critical balance between oil-removal efficiency and throughput capacity. Achieving this balance yields peak separation in the most cost-effective and space-efficient manner. These technologies have a global track record in onshore and offshore facilities.

CYCLOTECH Cyclonic Separation Technologies

Having no moving parts, CYCLOTECH B Series hydrocyclone technologies achieve liquid-liquid separation using a pressure drop across the unit. Their liners are manufactured from a range of wear-resistant materials, including tungsten carbide or reaction-bonded silicon carbide. An advanced ceramic that extends wear life up to 10 times beyond a standard duplex stainless steel liner is also available.

B Series technologies treat waterstreams containing up to 2,000 mg/L of oil to meet a discharge-water oil content of 30 mg/L—or more commonly, stretch targets as low as 15 mg/L.

With special features
        - Improved reliability – Use of no moving parts and wear-resistant materials
        - Smaller footprint – Compact design uses less space
        - More efficiency – Retrofit capability increases capacity and separation performance

CYCLOTECH Cyclonic Separation Technologies

Application of Cyclotech B Series Deoiling hydrocyclone
Operating with no moving parts, B Series technologies achieve liquid-liquid separation using a pressure drop across the unit. Oily water is forced under pressure into the inlet section of the liner via a tangential inlet port. This pressure, together with narrow cyclone diameter, causes the fluid to spin at high velocity, creating a high gradial acceleration field. Oil, the less-dense liquid, is forced to the axial center of the hydrocyclone to form a thin oil core. Through internal hydrodynamic forces and external differential pressure control, this oil core is removed via the reject ports of the hydrocyclone liners; the clean water flow is discharged from the cyclone underflow.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/cyclotech-b-series/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #28 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 17, 2021, 07:10:09 AM »
Glycol Dehydration Systems for water removal



Schlumberger Glycol dehydration systems remove water vapor from natural gas, which helps prevent hydrate formation and corrosion and maximixes piplines efficiency.

Overview –  Glycol dehydration systems
Efficient removal of water and impurities from natural gas streams

Our triethylene glycol dehydration system is among the most widely used in the oil and gas industry because of low operating costs and relatively low capex. Glycol dehydration systems are not only efficient at removing water from a natural gas stream, they also remove benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) as well as other volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

In natural gas systems, removing water vapor reduces pipeline corrosion and eliminates line blockage caused by hydrate formation. The water dewpoint needs to be below the lowest pipeline temperature to prevent free-water formation.

Using amine treatment to remove acid gases results in water-saturated gas that must be dehydrated before entering the pipeline. Most product specifications require the maximum quantity of water in the gas to be 4 to 7 lbm/MMcf.

Advantages
         - Suitable for a wide range of flow, pressure, and temperature conditions
         - Lower operating costs than conventional desiccants
         - Lower capex than solid bed systems
         - Custom and standard units, which can employ either bubble cap or structured packing
         - Reduced manufacturing and commissioning times for standard system designs
         - Easily packaged hybrid systems (amine packaged with glycol dehydration systems) for small to large gas sweetening requirements

Application of  Glycol dehydration systems
In our glycol dehydration system, wet gas enters a tower at the bottom and flows upward. Dry glycol flows down the tower from the top, from tray to tray or through packing material.


Our special bubble cap configuration maximizes gas-glycol contact, removing water to levels below 5 lbm/MMcf. Advanced systems can be designed to achieve levels less than 1 lbm/MMcf.


The dehydrated gas leaves the tower at the top and returns to the pipeline or goes to other processing units. The water-rich glycol leaves the tower at the bottom and goes to the reconcentration system, where it is filtered to remove impurities and heated to 400 degF [204 degC]. Water escapes as steam, and the purified glycol returns to the tower where it again contacts wet gas.

The entire system operates unattended. Controllers monitor pressures, temperatures, and other aspects of the system to maximize safety and efficiency.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/glycol-dehydration-systems-3/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #29 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 18, 2021, 01:41:53 PM »
PUREMEG Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation and regeneration system


Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation is widely used by the oil and gas markets in wellheads and pipelines to prevent hydrate formation at pipeline conditions. In offshore deepwater gas production facilities, where the exposure to lower temperatures in subsea pipelines is common , MEG is used for hydrate inhibition.

Overview –  PUREMEG Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation and regeneration system
Minimize MEG deterioration and losses and reduce operating and environmental costs

Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation is one of the most commonly used reagents for hydrate inhibition in production pipelines. It is recovered and reinjected to minimize the operating and environmental costs associated with MEG replacement and disposal.

PUREMEG MEG reclamation and regeneration systems not only regenerate the MEG by boiling off the pipeline water, they also remove salts and other solids to achieve the required outlet glycol purity. Dissolved salts in formation water, pipeline production chemicals, and pipe scale all have the potential to scale or foul both subsea and topside processing equipment. This MEG recovery system is an essential component of pipeline flow assurance.

Improve operational efficiency, increase plant availability, and maintain asset integrity
In addition to our reclamation technology, we provide everything from customized site support contracts covering training, installation, commissioning, and startup to long-term operational assistance, data acquisition, conditional monitoring, and predictive maintenance services.


PUREMEG Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation and regeneration system

Advantages
      - The system provides effective and proven salt removal.
      - Low solids levels in the recycle loop protect the most expensive and vulnerable parts of the system from abrasion, erosion, and fouling, which reduces maintenance and increases plant availability.
      - Low solids levels in the recycle loop protect the most expensive and vulnerable parts of the system from abrasion, erosion, and fouling, which reduces maintenance and increases plant availability.
      - The technology significantly reduces Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation losses and produces a wastestream suitable for marine disposal by separating salt from brine.
      - Solids removal is achieved without the use of centrifuges, unlike other systems on the market. This avoids use of expensive, high-maintenance equipment and prevents oxygen contamination of the Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation. Oxygen is a main contributor to MEG degradation and material corrosion within reclamation systems, affecting both opex and the life of the plant.
      - The MEG reboiler is designed to avoid hydrocarbon foaming and the fouling of packing associated with conventional systems.
      - The proprietary divalent salt removal system is capable of handling a diverse range of water chemistries, solids loadings, and particle-size distributions.
      - The dedicated reaction vessel optimizes crystal growth in the precipitation of divalent salts. Crystal size and shape directly influence the performance of downstream separation and drying processes.
     - A wash step is included as part of the divalent salt removal system, enabling MEG recovery and reducing opex; the salt discharge can be dried for easier handling and disposal


Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) Reclamation & Regeneration

Five-step process to regenerate MEG and remove salts
The PUREMEG system is configured with either a full-stream or slipstream process. Full stream both regenerates and removes salts from the rich MEG feed. Slipstream has full-feed MEG regeneration, with a portion of the lean of Monoethylene glycol (MEG) reclamation. Our experts can advise you which option best suits your process requirements. In either case, the process comprises five steps: pretreatment, MEG regeneration, flash separation, salt management, and divalent salt removal.

1) Pretreatment
In the pretreatment stage, the rich MEG—containing some dissolved gas and hydrocarbon liquids—is heated and passed through a three-phase separator vessel. The gas is flashed to flare and liquid hydrocarbons are sent to the condensate recovery system. The treated MEG is sent either to storage or the downstream process.

2) MEG regeneration
MEG regeneration is conducted in a reflux distillation column. For a slipstream process, the column operates off the low-pressure flare backpressure and is provided with a pump-around heating loop. For a full-stream system, the distillation column operates under vacuum conditions.

The lean MEG produced at the bottom of the column is pumped to storage for reuse. For the slipstream service, a portion of the lean MEG is sent for reclamation. The vaporized water passes overhead where it is condensed and collected in the reflux drum. A portion of the water is returned to the distillation column to provide reflux while the remainder is routed to water treatment. Residual hydrocarbons in the system are generally associated with this produced water stream, and we provide a wide range of water treatment systems capable of meeting local environmental legislation for discharge.

3) Flash separation (reclaimer)
In the flash separator, the rich MEG stream (full-stream reclamation) or lean MEG stream (slipstream reclamation), consisting of water and MEG with dissolved salts, is brought into contact with a hot recycled stream of concentrated MEG. The flash separator operates under vacuum conditions to maintain process temperatures below the degradation temperature of MEG. The feed MEG and water are vaporized and exit through the top of the flash separator. These vapors either pass to the MEG distillation column for regeneration (full-stream service) or are condensed and sent to lean MEG storage (slipstream service). The monovalent salt components, primarily sodium chloride, precipitate in the flash separator. They fall via gravity through a column of brine and are collected in the brine-filled salt tank.

4) Salt management
The salt tank serves two primary functions. The first is to condition the salt levels for optimal performance of the salt separation process. The second is to provide a surplus of salt for converting freshwater makeup to saturated brine. Salt is removed from the brine by a hydrocyclone to produce a slurry suitable for a landfill or for redissolving for marine disposal.

5) Divalent salt removal
Divalent salts (typically calcium, magnesium, and iron but also barium and strontium) cannot be precipitated out in the flash separator. Instead they accumulate in the process, which has an impact on system operability. For a slipstream process, the salts are often a cause of scaling within the reboiler. Removing the salts by MEG blowdown can be cost-prohibitive once disposal and replenishment costs are considered.

The divalent salt removal system precipitates out the salts by chemical reaction to form insoluble salts. Crystal size and shape directly influence the performance of the downstream filter. A dedicated reactor vessel is provided to control the temperature, time, and concentration for optimal crystal growth and morphology. Both sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide are used for the chemical reaction to account for variations in feed conditions. The crystals, together with any other solids such as pipe scale and sand, are removed by filtration. Typically a dynamic crossflow filter is used for this service because of its tolerance for a wide range of particle sizes and distribution. The filter produces a clean MEG stream, which is returned to the process, and a concentrated slurry or cake, which is washed to recover any residual MEG. The produced slurry or cake can be further dried to provide a waste product that is easy to store and handle.

Typical PUREMAG system with full-stream reclamation

https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/puremeg-monoethylene-glycol-meg-reclamation-and-regeneration-system/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #30 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 20, 2021, 07:08:11 AM »
What is LNG Storage Tank? and what it’s used for?

In the shipping sector, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has firmly established itself as the fuel of choice for the future, according to a wide range of participants. Despite this upbeat outlook, one of the most significant barriers to switching to natural gas is the expensive initial investment required for LNG storage facilities. Supplier is continuing to investigate innovative ways of integrating technology in order to provide cost-effective storage solutions for gas-fueled boats of any size and LNG installed volume, regardless of their fuel source.

Shipping is a truly global business with fierce competition on an ongoing basis. Increased public pressure to reduce the sector’s environmental effect only serves to increase customers’ desire to lower their expenses. In order to save money and stay one step ahead of the competition, it may be necessary to implement innovative new solutions or repurpose existing technology from other industries. The latter method is often less complicated, involves less risks, and results in a shorter time to market. The evaluation of current technologies and their cost drivers, as a consequence, may aid in the creation of strategies for overcoming implementation roadblocks. Of course, each Supplier solution takes into account the unique needs of each customer, but this research outlines a few of the ways in which Supplier may help more customers in realizing the environmental and economic benefits of LNG.

Installations and equipment for liquefied natural gas – EN 1473
Cryogenic Liquid Vacuum Storage Tank

Euronorm It is the European standard EN 1473 Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas, which serves as the overarching document for the design, building, and operation of all onshore LNG facilities. It includes installations for liquefaction and regasification, as well as storage facilities, which are often referred to as tanks in the industry. Environment compatibility, safety needs, risk assessments, and safety engineering are all addressed in detail in EN 1473, which specifies terminology and imposes standards to be taken into consideration throughout the design process. These LNG facilities are specified in detail in the standard and in Annex G: – LNG export terminal; – LNG receiving terminal; – LNG peak-shaving plants; and – LNG satellite plants.

Some parts of this standard have a direct impact on the design and construction of concrete tanks, while others have a less direct impact. This includes suggestions on how to evaluate safety and environmental compatibility, which are included in Chapter 4, for example. A thorough environmental impact assessment (EIA) must be carried out after the site has been determined. It is necessary to do this evaluation in order to determine the total amount of solids, liquids, and gases released by the facility during both regular operation and accidents. It is essential that plants be built in such a manner that gas is not constantly flared or vented, but is instead recovered to the greatest extent feasible, and that hazards to persons and property both within and outside the facility are minimized to a level that is widely considered acceptable. The study of the site may provide load scenarios that are important for the design, such as tsunamis or blast pressure waves,amongst other possibilities. It is necessary to include information on the existence of karst, gypsum and swelling clays in geological and tectonic soil surveys, as well as the susceptibility of the soil to liquefaction, the physical formation process, and the possibility for seismic activity in the future.

When constructing an LNG plant, it is necessary to do a risk assessment. The guidance in Annexes I, J, and K (which are given only for informational reasons) pertains to establishing frequency ranges, classes of consequence, degrees of risk, and acceptance criteria, among other things. A risk category is given to the plant based on a study of frequency ranges and consequence classes, and the plant is assigned to one of three risk categories. If the risk is acceptable, it must be lowered to a level that is as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), if it is unacceptable, it falls into one of the categories listed above. In the annexes, the values specified are minimum requirements that may be increased by national laws or project specifications.

When doing a hazard and operation study (HAZOP), risk assessment is often included, but other methods are also allowed, such as failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), event tree method (ETM), and fault tree method (FTM). It is necessary to categorize plant systems and components based on their relevance to safety within the scope of the risk assessment. Here, there is a division into two categories: class A, which includes systems that are critical to plant safety or protection systems that must be kept operational to ensure a minimum level of safety; and class B, which includes systems that perform functions that are critical to plant operation or systems whose failure could result in a major impact on the environment or create an additional hazard.

Sections 6.3 and 6.4 are particularly important for the design of concrete storage tanks, respectively. Section 6.3 and Annex H include specifics and illustrations of the different tank types, information that is complemented by the more comprehensive requirements of EN 14620 Part 1 (European Standard for Pressure Vessels). Because it covers spherical tanks as well as concrete tanks with both the main and secondary containers constructed of prestressed concrete, EN 1473 goes farther than EN 14620 in terms of the information that it provides. 6.4 defines design principles, which include criteria for fluid-tightness, maximum and minimum pressures, tank connections, thermal insulation, instrumentation, heating, and liquid level restrictions, among other things. These principles allow for the development of design criteria for the architecture of the facility, the minimum distance between tanks, and the consideration of potential sources of danger such as fire or blast pressure wave, among other things.

Construction of LNG Tanks – EN 14620 The European Standard EN 14620, which specifies the design and manufacture of site-built vertical, cylindrical, flat-bottomed steel tanks for the storage of refrigerated, liquefied gases with operating temperatures ranging from zero degrees Celsius to one hundred and sixty degrees Celsius, is divided into five parts:

Part 1: Overarching Concepts
Part 2: Components made of metal
Part 3: Components made of concrete
Part 4: Components of the insulation
Part 5: Testing, drying, purging, and cooling-down procedures.

Types of LNG Storage Tanks

Type of LNG tanks

Liquefied gas storage tanks are classified according to their kind and size according to a variety of standards and rules that vary in terms of when they were issued as well as the amount of information they provide. The two German standards, DIN EN 1473 and DIN EN 14620, are even diametrically opposed in terms of the language they use. This section will make use of either the terminology found in the British counterpart, BS EN 1473, or the terms found in API 625. BS EN 1473 is the British equivalent of API 625. From a practical standpoint, the term “containment tank system,” as used in API 625, seems to be the most suitable, since the many, but coordinated, components work together to form a cohesive system as a result of their interaction. According to the standards EEMUA, BS 7777, EN 1473, EN 14620- 1, NFPA 59A, and API 625, containment tank systems may be classified as single, double, or complete containment tank systems. There is one additional tank type that is described in more depth in the European standards EN 1473 and EN 14620, and that is the membrane tank.

Until the 1970s, the only kind of tank that was constructed was the single-wall tank. It was the hazard scenarios resulting from abnormal actions such as failure of the inner tank, fire, blast pressure wave, and impact that inspired the subsequent further development of the various types of tanks or tank systems, and the associated requirements placed on the materials and construction details. Because of the dangers that a tank failure poses to the surrounding regions, it is essential to choose the appropriate kind of tank system.

It will be shown, using the failure of the inner container, the consequences of such a failure on the tank as a whole and its surroundings for three widely used tank systems. It will also be discussed how these three tank systems have evolved over time.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/blog/what-is-lng-storage-tank/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #31 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 20, 2021, 08:38:03 AM »
Cameron choke valve – flow control industry standard

Cameron’s choke valve is designed to provide precise flow control throughout their entire operating range, with a well-proven track record in the field :

Overview – Control Choke valve
Cameron’s control choke valve is designed to provide precise flow control throughout their entire operating range, with a well-proven track record in the field :
        - Control choke valve is suitable for a wide variety of applications, including production, injection, artificial lift, flowback, storage, etc.
        - Commonly installed on Christmas trees, manifolds, line heaters, offshore platforms, FPSOs, and other equipment, providing precise flow control under severe service conditions.
        - Available with plug & cage, external-sleeve or multistage trim types.
        - Multiple flow characteristics, including ‘linear’ or ‘equal percentage’, with special trim solutions available in response to specific challenges.
        - Special trim solutions include ultra-low Cv, low noise, and well cleanup types.
        - Control chokes offer a complete solution from startup to late life conditions, with the flexibility to easily retrofit various trim types as conditions evolve.
        - Available in manual and actuated configurations, including multiple actuator types.

Application of Cameron’s Control Choke Valve
        - Selection of the correct trim size and type is vital to the successful and reliable operation of a choke. Cameron offers a computer-based choke sizing program to optimize choke sizing and selection for you.
        - Based on flow and pressure requirements of the application, the program analyzes and specifies the optimal choke size and trim configuration.
        - Features of the program include
        - capability to size a large number of chokes and flow conditions
        - modular sizing program structure that enables the addition of new choke and choke trim data updates as needed
        - graphics capabilities
        - project worksheet and Cv curve printouts
        - choke sizing per ANSI/ISA S75.01 specifications
        - flow testing per ANSI/ISA S75.02 specifications
        - noise prediction and testing per ANSI/ISA S75.07 specifications.

External Sleeve Control Choke for low-capacity, high-pressure-drop applications
       - The external sleeve control choke has a sleeve that throttles the flow on the external diameter of the ported cage. The external sleeve trim is particularly suited for low-capacity/high pressure-drop applications. The external sleeve is designed specifically for severely erosive service where the combination of high pressure drops and high sand concentrations can reduce the life of a choke.
        - Available in various sizes ranging from CC15 to CC80 choke models.
        - Tungsten carbide-lined external sleeve and solid tungsten carbide cage/seat provide optimum wear resistance in erosive conditions.
        - Metal body-to-bonnet gasket for absolute pressure containment.
        - Reverse angle external sleeve improves flow dynamics within the trim.
        - Self-flushing, pressure-balanced ports reduced stem loads and actuator output requirements.
        - Heavy-duty thrust bearings reduce operating torque.
        - Pressure-balance seals are a key feature of the pressurbalanced trim arrangement, reducing operating forces and enabling greater ease of adjustment.

Features
        - Large visual indicator provides position in 1/64 in (bean) as standard.
        - External grease port lubricates threads and bearings.
        - Stem lock maintains set position.
        - Bleed plug assembly vents pressure before disassembly.
        - Antirotation key translates rotation from the drive bushing into linear movement of the lower stem/flow plug assembly.
        - Two-piece stem is threaded and locked, and is removed from wellbore fluids.
        - Large annulus area reduces the risk of body and trim erosion caused by high velocities.

All control chokes are available in manually operated or actuated models. Custom-designed trim components to suit a wide variety of Cv capacities and flow characteristics also are available

Plug & Cage Control choke
        - The plug and cage control choke uses the plug as the controlling element and throttles the flow on the internal diameter of the ported cage. The ports in the cage are sized and arranged to give the most appropriate combination of control and flow capacity for each application.
        - A major consideration when sizing the choke is the ability to closely manage well startup while optimizing capacity toward the end of well life to maximize production.
        - The plug and cage design is highly optimized and incorporates the largest-possible flow area, making it ideal for high-capacity applications. Plug and cage chokes also are constructed with a solid tungsten carbide plug tip and inner cage for extended resistance to erosion. These valves may further be configured with a solid tungsten carbide wear sleeve in the outlet of the body to provide enhanced protection in sandy service.

This trim also includes a thick metal outer cage to ensure maximum protection against solid impacts from debris in the flow. The combined result is a versatile, robust, erosion-resistant trim with suitability for a broad range of challenging applications.

        - Available in various sizes ranging from CC15 to CC80 choke models.
        - Tungsten carbide plug tip in conjunction with solid tungsten carbide cage optimizes wear resistance in erosive conditions.
        - Metal body-to-bonnet gasket for absolute pressure containment.
        - Fully guided plug reduces side loading and vibration.
        - Self-flushing, pressure-balanced ports reduce stem loads and actuator output requirements.
        - Heavy-duty thrust bearings reduce operating torque.
        - Pressure-balance seals are a key feature of the pressure-balanced trim arrangement, reducing operating forces and enabling greater ease of adjustment.
        - Metal outer cage protects from impact damage.

The control choke model
CC15 Control Choke Valve



CC20 Control Choke Valve


CC30 Control Choke Valve

High Temp and High Pressure Application

https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/cameron-control-choke-valve/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #32 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 21, 2021, 10:27:28 AM »
The Jupiter® JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter

The Jupiter® JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter is a loop-powered 24 VDC liquid-level transmitter and is available as a direct insertion transmitter or as an external mounted transmitter onto a Magnetic Level Indicator. It relies on the position of a magnetic float which is designed precisely for the liquid to be measured. This high-accuracy device can be designed for liquid level and/or liquid-liquid interface measurement.

Principle
The Jupiter JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter is a loop-powered 24 VDC liquid-level transmitter and is available as a direct insertion transmitter or as an external mounted transmitter onto a Magnetic Level Indicator. It relies on the position of a magnetic float which is designed precisely for the liquid to be measured. This high-accuracy device can be designed for liquid level and/or liquid-liquid interface measurement.

Technology of JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter
Magnetostriction

A low-energy pulse, generated by the JUPITER electronics, travels the length of the magnetostrictive wire. A return signal is generated from the precise location where the magnetic field of a float intersects the wire. A timer precisely measures the elapsed time between the generation of the pulse and the return of the acoustic signal.  Each cycle occurs ten times per second, providing real-time and highly accurate level data.

How magnetostriction works
LOW-VOLTAGE PULSE

On-board electronics send a low-voltage electrical pulse down the magnetostrictive wire at the speed of light, ten times per second.

MAGNETS
Magnets contained within the float focus their energy toward the wire at the precise location of the liquid level.

PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS
The mechanical wave is converted back into electrical energy by two piezoelectric crystals. The on-board electronics interpret the time-of-flight data and indicate the position of the float magnets.

TWIST
Interaction between the magnetic field, electrical pulse, and magnetostrictive wire cause a slight mechanical disturbance in the wire that travels back up the probe at the speed of sound.


Features of JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter
         - 4-button user interface and graphical LCD display provide enhanced depth of data, indicating on-screen waveforms and troubleshooting tips.
         - 4-20 mA output
         - Rotatable housing can be dismantled without depressurising the vessel via “Quick connect/disconnect” probe coupling.
         - Ergonomic dual compartment enclosure
         - Simple set-up and configuration
         - Smart Probe Technology
         - Easy attachment to an MLI
         - Direct insertion for a wide variety of vessels and applications

Application of JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter
Chemical

         - Chemical injection
         - Chemical injection skids
         - Condenser
         - Deionization tanks
         - Distillation columns
         - Distillation towers
         - Liquid-Liquid extraction
         - Neutralization
         - Quench Tower/Settler
         - Reboiler
         - Reflux drum
         - Scrubber vessels
         - Steam drums for chemical industry

Natural Gas
         - Chemical injection skids
         - Compressor Scrubber
         - Compressor Waste Liquid
         - Gas Dehydration
         - Natural gas separators
         - NGL recovery & Storage
         - Separators
         - Sour gas treatment
         - Sulfur Recovery
         - Vapor recovery unit

Petroleum Refining
         - Alkylation tanks
         - Catalytic reformers
         - Catalytic strippers
         - Crude desalting
         - Crude Dewatering
         - Diesel fuel storage tanks
         - Distillation columns
         - Distillation towers
         - Gun-barrel separators
         - Horizontal separators
         - Hydrocracking
         - Hydrodesulfurization
         - Isomerization
         - Reboiler
         - Separator boots
         - Solvent extraction
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/jm4-magnetostrictive-level-transmitter/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #33 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 22, 2021, 01:47:29 PM »
Magnetic level indicator Atlas™

The AtlasTM is our standard, high performance magnetic level indicator. The ATLAS is a single-chamber design, with either 2″, 2.5″, or 3″ chamber diameter, as required by the application. There are twelve basic configuration styles, including top mount models.

ATLAS magnetic level indicators are produced in a wide range of materials of construction, including exotic alloys and plastics. We also offers one of the most complete selections of process connection types and sizes for level measurement.

The ATLAS unit may be equipped with a variety of level transmitters and switches, as well as flag and shuttle indicators with or without stainless steel scales. This enables the ATLAS magnetic level indicator to be a complete level and monitoring control.

Principle
A change of level in the process tank corresponds to a similar change within the ATLAS chamber. In response to the level movement, the ATLAS float moves accordingly, actuating the flags or shuttle for visual indication.
Technology of Magnetic level indicator Atlas™

Magnetic Level Indicators (MLI) have revolutionized the global visual indication market by offering a safer, reliable, and high-visibility alternative to common gauge glass assemblies.  Utilizing a combination of proven buoyancy principles along with the benefits magnetism, MLIs can be customized to fit virtually any process connection arrangement on the vessel.

The chamber and magnetic float is available in a variety of materials and pressure ratings to accommodate the wide variety of complex process applications present in the world’s major industrial facilities.

Features of Magnetic level indicator Atlas™
         - Numerous chamber styles (or configurations) are available for each design. Consult factory for options not listed in this bulletin.
         - Complete range of level switches and level transmitters
         - Fabricated, non-magnetic chamber assembly produced in a wide range of metal and plastic materials
         - A wide range of process connections is available
         - Precision manufactured float with internal magnets and magnetic flux ring
         - ASME and EN 1092-1 process connections available
         - Flag or shuttle type indicator with stainless steel scale to measure height or percentage of level, volume or content
         - Standard float stop springs at top and bottom of chamber
         - Exceptional code qualified welding

Applications of Magnetic level indicator Atlas™
         - Feedwater heaters
         - Industrial boilers
         - Oil/water separators
         - Flash drums
         - Surge tanks
         - Gas chillers
         - Deaerators
         - Blowdown flash tanks
         - Hot wells
         - Vacuum tower bottoms
         - Alkylation units
         - Boiler drums
         - Propane vessels
         - Storage tanks
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/magnetic-level-indicator-atlas/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #34 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 22, 2021, 02:32:54 PM »
LNG ISO Tank for relocatable LNG station

Multi-layer Vacuum insulated cryogenic LNG ISO Tank is covered with double-walled shields. These are designed for efficient and cost-saving transportation.

Fixed chassis design provides excellent transportation. Even transporting in rough road, this design is strong enough to deliver in every situation.

LNG ISO container is your perfect choice for worldwide LNG transportation. The LNG ISO Tank has many customizable features. Moreover, 40-feet LNG tank is specially designed for easy transportation around the world.

LNG ISO cryogenic containers are commonly used in many countries for optimizing energy supply chains and storing liquefied natural gas in urban and rural areas. As specific customer’s requirement, customer can possibly buy or lease the containers for short or long periods. We will offer you a cost-effective solution.

Especially, LNG ISO tank and containers are designed for transportation not only on the road and rail but also in the sea and especially for international transportation.

The most outstanding function of LNG ISO Container is the ability to transport among land, railway and ocean. Gms Interneer has many partners whose enterprise passed the Ministry of Communications and national Marine Board LNG container’ test. With excellent insulation, no matter how far the transportation is, LNG ISO Container is your suitable choice in any case.

How LNG ISO Tank works ?
The main circuit of LNG ISO Tank is divided as following:

Filling

The process starts with filling LNG into the storage tank through the E-1 and through the filling valve to the tank. Especially, the pressure must be controlled in proper level. There are two main parts:
          - Bottom fill is filling LNG into the bottom of the tank containing liquid which flows directly via V-1. When LNG combines with existing LNG in the tank, it turns to faster filling. However, it will also increase the pressure of the tank.
          - Top fill is filling LNG to the top of the storage tank directly via V-2. When LNG merges with gas vapor, it becomes slower filling. Moreover, it will reduce the pressure of the tank

Pressure Build-up

To control the pressure in the storage tank, it depends on the expansion of gasified LNG liquid. PBU-1, PBU-2 Build-up coils generating pressure are controlled by V-13 which is manual shutoff. Furthermore, Some cases can be automated by regulator or on-off valve. When the pressure of the tank decreases from standard level, On-Off Valve will open until it reaches the desired pressure. Finally, the On-Off Valve will be closed. The pressure change is involved with how much you use it, for example using LNG continuously.

Safety Device

Safety Device consists of 2 sets of PRV (Pressure Relief Valve) .Each set will have 2 pairs working together which are set to the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure. If the pressure is over the setpoint, PRV will start opening. It will close until the pressure in the system is equal to the setpoint.

Instrument Device

The gauge set consists of level gauge and pressure gauge:
          - The level gauge is differential pressure type by using the difference of the pressure level of the low pressure and the high pressure. This differential pressure will push diaphragm mechanism to show the result.
          - The pressure gauge is Bourdon Type. This type is measured at the cylinder head.

LNG outlet

LNG can be used by opening the V-3 valve to distribute it through E-3. Normally, ISO container can be moved in any places and loaded back. However, filling LNG can also do in the same time but the tank pressure must be controlled stably
           - Fill on V-2 (Top Fill ) by closing V-1 (Bottom Fill), which results from the top filling may decrease the tank pressure and fill slowly. Therefore, it relies on generating pressure from the pressure control circuit.
           - In case of opening, filling on V-2 (Top Fill ) and V-1 (Bottom Fill) will continue as usual procedure by controlling the balance of both valves. However, there will be some amount of existing LNG during the filling that flows through V-3 to use in operation. This makes the amount of LNG decrease .Therefore, if taking into account the filling volume from LNG Truck, there should be a flow meter to measure the amount.
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/lng-iso-tank-for-lng-station/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #35 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 25, 2021, 04:40:25 AM »
Magnetic level indicator Aurora®


Designed as an alternative and upgrade to traditional gauge devices, Magnetic Level Indicators (MLI) from Orion Instruments® are manufactured to provide accurate and reliable liquid level in a wide range of applications. Our MLI product line-manufactured globally at multiple facilities— requires minimum maintenance and eliminates common sight glass problems like vapor and liquid emission. Orion Instruments specializes in precision-engineered excellence and offers highly customized configurations and options for process environments, including those with extreme temperatures and pressures.

True Redundancy in a Single Chamber of Magnetic level indicator Aurora® .The Aurora® MLI combines Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar (GWR) and a float-actuated visual indicator to simultaneously provide both continuous and local level indication. So unique is the Orion Instruments ® dual redundancy within a singlechambered MLI that Aurora® has been granted a U.S. patent.

Technology of Magnetic level indicator Aurora®
Radar Transmitter

The Eclipse® transmitter continuously emits electromagnetic radar pulsesdirectly off the liquid surface.The on-board electronics provide a real-time level output, in addition to the external visual indicator operated by the Aurora® internal float.

Baffle Plate
The GWR probe area is separated from the freemoving float by a baffle plate.

Vertical Float
The custom float located inside the chamber is magnetically coupled to the visual indicator. The float rotates flags or moves a shuttle to visually indicate liquid tank level (as explained in more detail at right).

Visual Indication
The float positioned within the Aurora® chamber risesand falls according to levelchanges. The float contains an internal group of magnetsthat are “coupled” with magnets in the flags of the visual indicator. As the float moves, the flags rotate to expose the color of theiropposite side. The position where the flag’s color changes corresponds to a point on the measuring scale indicating true level. (The optional shuttle indicator moves parallel with the float to indicate level on the scale).


Optimum Float Performance
Orion Instruments® floats are engineered to provide the world’s best MLI performance.The 360-degree vertical placement of the magnets assures proper coupling with the flag or shuttle of the indicator, even if the float is spinning in its chamber. The magnetic assembly creates a constant Gauss rating optimized to ensure reliable performance. Float magnets are designed to function at temperatures up to +537° C (+1000° F) for years of reliable service.Special float alloys are available.

Baffle Plate
The superb float performance within the Aurora® is due in part to an angled baffle plate mounted inside the chamber.The baffle plate ➀ partitions the GWR probe area ➁ from the float area ➂ and serves as a guide to ensure both smooth float travel and proper indicator operation. Perforations along the baffleplate equalize pressure and allow free media flow within the chamber. The probe area ➁ also acts as a gasbypass zone when flashing occurs. This helps in preventing damage to the float.


Features of Magnetic level indicator Aurora®
Introduced in 1998, Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar (GWR) quickly ascended to its leading role in process level measurement. GWR is still favored throughout the industry for its easy setup, trouble-free operation, measurement accuracy, and immunity to changing process conditions.The Aurora® single chamber houses both the Eclipse® GWR probe and buoyancy float, with the former providing continuous measurement and the latter magnetically coupledto a visual indicator to provide local level indication. A flag-type indicator (or a moving shuttle) visually indicates liquid level. A variety of measurement scales and indicator flag colors are available.

Applications of Magnetic level indicator Aurora®
        - Alkylation Tanks
        - Blowdown Tanks
        - Boiler Drums
        - Condensation Tanks
        - Deaerators
        - Feedwater Heaters
        - Flash Drums
        - Gas Chillers
        - Hot Wells
        - Industrial Boilers
        - Oil-Water Separators
        - Propane Vessels
        - Storage Tanks
        - Surge Tanks
        - Vacuum Towers
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/magnetic-level-indicator-aurora/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #36 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 25, 2021, 11:58:59 AM »
Cameron Gate Valve with API6A standard

Over the course of the last century, numerous gate valve design genres have been developed for use in the oil and gas industry. Designs that have commonly been used to control fluid through production trees and flowlines include expanding , wedge, and slab-style gate valves. Cameron engineers have selected the best-suited features for development and impletiontation into Cameron Gate Valve with API6A standard

Overview – Cameron Gate Valve with API6A standard
        - Cameron designs and manufactures gate valves to API Spec 6A valves to help you meet the demands of land and offshore drilling and production, including
        - large-bore completions
        - extreme pressures and temperatures
        - heavy oil
        - sour service
        - subsea applications.

Application of Cameron Gate Valve with API6A standard
The FLS gate valve is part of the F Series of valves, which have been supplied for production and drilling service since 1958. Many of the features of the FLS are common to our original Type F gate valve, such as
        - full- and internally flushed bore and forged construction
        - metal-to-metal sealing
        - slab gate
        - design simplicity.

In other areas such as seat seals and stem seals, the FLS design takes advantage of our latest technology in materials and seal design.

The Cameron FLS gate valve is widely recognized as a high-quality valve for severe applications, available in pressure ratings from 2,000 to 20,000 psi and bore sizes from 1 13/16 to 11 in. The FLS valve is our standard valve for critical requirements, including extreme sour and subsea applications. In addition, it can be fitted with a wide range of our actuators.

FLS Gate valve : Product and Extreme service API6A slab-style gate valve Advantages
        - Metal-to-metal sealing
        - Reliability through simplicity of design
        - Bidirectional sealing
        - Stem backseat
        - Nonelastomeric, spring-loaded, pressure-energized stem seal that requires no longitudinal preload or precise spaceout
        - Innovative seat design
        - Lip seals that perform several functions:
                 - Serving as added barrier against contaminants and debris
                 - Maintaining contact between the gate and seats, eliminating body cavity clearance while retaining downstream sealing function of the slab gate
                 - Enhancing sealing integrity at very low differential pressures, where low bearing stresses tend to limit the effectiveness of the metal-to-metal seal
        - Qualification testing to API 6A, Annex F (PR-2) and Annex I (Class II)
        - Optional torque multiplier

        FL, FLS, and FLS-R gate valves, this chart represents typical valves for  API material classes AA, BB, CC, DD, EE, FF, and HH (except FL) , Temperature ratings K, L, P, S, T, U, and V , Product specification levels 1, 2, 3, 3G, and 4.

Available product : Nominal Bore size vs Working pressure

Reference Project
      - PTTEP Siam : Yearly Contract Supply for API Gate valve in 2014-2015
      - PTTEP Siam : Year Contract Supply for API Gate valve in 2021-2022
https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/cameron-gate-valve-with-api6a-standard/

Re: GMS Interneer oil & gas equipment users in Thailand
« ตอบกลับ #37 เมื่อ: ตุลาคม 26, 2021, 03:14:04 PM »
SMITH Gaskets – Smith International Gulf Services


SMITH Gaskets supplies a comprehensive range of oilfield products and services including industrial gaskets, advanced cutting services and hi-tech testing facilities.

A gasket is an elastomeric component that covers the point where two surfaces meet. They are often made of a range of materials, such as rubber, cork or paper, metal, copper, and foam. Because of its versatility, this adaptable element may be utilized for a variety of applications. These include anti-vibration, packaging, cleanliness, noise and sound reduction, and, perhaps most significantly, sealing. Gaskets are utilized in almost every industry, including food processing, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, water, and gas. Gasket materials are selected for their properties and capacity to endure a variety of conditions, including mining and deep-sea environments, as well as resistance to chemicals, alkaline acids, high temperatures, and pressure

How does a Gasket work?
A gasket must be squeezed enough to create a complete barrier that will form a pressure-tight seal and protect the contents within the seal in order for it to operate properly and seal away any leaks. Furthermore, gaskets protect moving components of an application by preventing them from rubbing against hard surfaces and causing friction. An elastomeric gasket is a component that creates a seal between two surfaces by sealing against the release or intake of both gases and liquids. They are excellent for filling defects and connecting two surfaces. Because a gasket will cover the gap between these two surfaces, it must be made of a material that is readily deformed and fills any imperfections. Compounds such as spiral wrapped gaskets are often made from a combination of metallic and softer filler material (flexible graphite). Metal gaskets must most of the time be squeezed at a greater tension in order to seal accurately. In certain instances, a sealant must be placed directly to the gasket to provide a leak-free seal.

Applications for Gaskets
A gasket is an important component in various production processes since they are available in a variety of specifications. Gasket material is selected for an installation based on properties like as resistance to chemicals, temperatures (or temperature variations), pressures, acids, gases, and, in certain cases, electromagnetic or electrical forces. Gaskets are widely used and may be found in automobiles, trains, aircraft, boats, electrical equipment, pumps, and a variety of other uses.

Industries that make use of gasket
A gasket material has the ability to withstand some of the most demanding conditions for industrial sealing goods, such as:
        - Chemical synthesis
        - Production of electricity
        - Petrochemical and deep-sea exploration
        - Oil and gas
        - Mining
        - Military
        - Aerospace
        - Filtration
        - Food and Beverage
        - Pharmaceutical
        - Industries involved in sanitary processing

Gaskets may be manufactured using a variety of methods, depending on the material and application, including:
        - Extrusion of rubber
        - Cold bond splicing and hot vulcanized splicing
        - Compression molding, injection molding, and transfer molding
        - Slitting with precision
        - Personalized die cutting
        - Waterjet chopp

Gaskets and seals are used in almost every application and sector, including oil and gas, manufacturing and industrial uses, pulp and paper production, and agricultural equipment. Gaskets that have become worn or damaged are simple to repair. It is common practice to replace gaskets whenever the equipment is dismantled and rebuilt.

PRODUCT OF SMITH Gaskets
RING TYPE JOINTS

Ring joint gaskets are metallic sealing rings suitable for high pressure and high temperature applications and are fitted in ring groove type flanges.They are widely used in the Oil/Gas and Petrochemical industry, in valves and pipe-work. Choice of material may be determined to suit higher temperatures and aggressive media. They comply with ASME B16.20 standards and API spec 6A (where applicable).

The gasket hardness is carefully controlled and shall always be softer than the mating flanges to ensure a good seal and no damage to the flange surface (note: RTJ gaskets should not be re-used). All SMITH RTJ gaskets are manufactured from fully traceable materials and are stamped to the requirements of API 6A and ASME B16.20. DIN 50049 3.1 certification is supplied with all orders. The gaskets are machined to the required tolerances and surface finish using high quality CNC lathes. All soft iron and carbon steel RTJ gaskets are electroplated with zinc 0.0005″ thick in accordance with API specifications. Other non-standard styles of metal rings are also available like combination, IX, Delta and Lens to customer specifications.

1) TYPE R 
R type ring joint gaskets are available in oval or octagonal cross section and manufactured in accordance to API 6A and ASME B16.20 to suit API 6B and ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges. The oval ring fits the round and flat bottom ring groove flange, while the octagonal shape fits only the modern flat bottom groove flange.

2) TYPE RX
The RX type RTJ gasket is manufactured in accordance to API 6A and ASME B16.20 to suit API 6B and ASME/ANSI B16.5 flanges. The RX is a pressure energized version of the R octagonal gasket and fits the R type flat bottomed groove.
The RX has an increased height and utilizes the internal system pressure to energize and improve the seal as internal pressure increases. Some RX sizes have a pressure relief hole to equalize pressure both sides of the sealing faces

3) TYPE BX
The BX type RTJ gaskets are manufactured in accordance with API 6A and are suitable for use in high pressure API 6BX flanges.The gaskets form a metal-to-metal seal on assembly and the efficiency improves as internal pressure increases. All BX sizes have a pressure relief hole to equalize pressure across sealing faces.
         - SRX and SBX RTJ gaskets to API 17D for subsea applications.
         - IX rings for compact flanges
         - Other non-standard styles of metal rings are also available like combination, IX, Delta and Lens to customer specifications

SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS
Spiral Wound Gaskets are suitable for a wide range of operating conditions and can be adapted to suit almost all applications. The gaskets can seal fluid pressures up to 250 bar and temperature range of -200°C to in excess of 450°C.

THICKNESS : All RS and RSI gaskets for standard flanges have a 4.5mm thick sealing section of windings and filler material, with 3.2mm thick solid metal guide rings.

https://www.gmsthailand.com/product/smith-gaskets-smith-international-gulf-services/